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It should be borne in mind, that this work does not profess to give an abridged account of all the subjects which are comprised in the larger work. On many matters, such as those relating to Jurisprudence, and several departments of Art, the reader must refer for information to the other Dictionary. On many subjects likewise, which are contained in this Abridgment, only the most important facts are stated; those who desire more detailed information, and an account of the conflicting views held by modern scholars on certain points, must consult the original work. In such cases the present work will serve as a convenient introduction to the other, and will enable the student to use the latter with more advantage and profit than he would otherwise have been able to do. It has been considered unnecessary to give in this Abridgment references to ancient and modern writers, as they are not required by the class of persons for whose use the book is designed, and they are to be found in the original work.
London, May 20th, 1845.
PREFACE TO THE AMERICAN EDITION.
The Editor believes that he is rendering a very acceptable service to the young student, in presenting him with a corrected and improved edition of the present work, both on account of the aid which it will afford him in his classical reading, and because the information contained in it will be found to be far more accurate and worthy of reliance than that given in any similar work ever published in this country. In preparing this volume for the press, errors in the London edition have been corrected, many important articles have been added, and the amount of illustrations has been very materially enlarged. The Greek Index, also, which abounded in errors, has been carefully revised and augmented.
Col. Coll. Feb. 9th, 1846.
GREEK AND ROMAN ANTIQUITIES.
A'BACUS (üßaš), denoted primarily a | in sacrifice. The word is derived from ablesquare tablet of any description, and was gere, in imitation of the Greek ánohéyelv, hence employed in the following significa which is used in a similar manner. These
parts were also called Porriciæ, Prosegmina, 1. A table, or side-board, chiefly used for Prosecta. [SACRIFICIUM.] the display of gold and silver cups, and other
ABOLLĀ, a cloak chiefly worn by soldiers, kinds of valuable and ornamental utensils. and thus opposed to the toga, the garb of The use of abaci was first introduced at peace. (TOGA.] The abolla was used by the Rome from Asia Minor after the victories of
lower classes at Rome, and consequently by Cn. Manlius Vulso, B. C. 187, and their intro- the philosophers who affected severity of duction was regarded as one of the marks of manners and life. the growing luxury of the age.
2. A draught-board or chess-board.
3. A board used by mathematicians for drawing diagrams, and by arithmeticians for the purposes of calculation.
4. In architecture, the flat square stone which constituted the highest member of a column, being placed immediately under the architrave.
ABLEGʻMINA (útone yuoi) were the parts of the victim which were offered to the gods
Abolla, Military Cloak,
ACINACES. ACAPTIUM (ůkátlov, a diminutive of ủka- | other hand, we find cases of women reclining, TOS), a small vessel or boat used by the where there was conceived to be nothing bold Greeks, which appears to have been the or indelicate in their posture. Such is the same as the Roman scapha. The Acatia were case in the following woodcut, which seems also sails adapted for fast sailing.
ACCENSÚS. 1. A public officer, who attended on several of the Roman magistrates. He anciently preceded the consul who had not the fasces, which custom, after being long disused, was restored by Julius Cæsar in his first consulship. Accensi also attended on the governors of provinces. 2. The accensi were also a class of soldiers in the Roman army, who were enlisted after the full number of the legion had been completed, in order to supply any vacancies that might occur in the legion. They were taken, according to the census of Servius Tullius, from the fifth class of citizens, and were placed in battle in the rear of the army, behind the triarii.
ACCLAMATIO was the public expression of approbation or disapprobation, pleasure or displeasure, by loud acclamations. On many
Accubatio, Act of Reclining. occasions, there appear to have been certain intended to represent a scene of matrimonial forms of acclamations always used by the felicity. The husband and wife recline on a Romans; as, for instance, at marriages, Io sofa ; their two sons are in front of them; Hymen, Hymenaee, or Talassio ; at triumphs, and several females and a boy are perform1o Triumphe; at the conclusion of plays, the ing a piece of music for the entertainment of last actor called out Plaudite to the spectators; the married pair. orators were usually praised by such expres- For an account of the disposition of the sions as Bene et praeclare, Belle et festive, Non couches, and of the place which each guest potest melius, &c. ACCU'BÍTA, the name of couches which ment, see SYMPOSIUM and TRICLINIUM.
occupied in a Greek and Roman entertainwere used in the time of the Roman emperors, ACCUSA'TOR, ACCUSATIO. [JUDEX.] instead of the triclinium, for reclining on at ACERRA (θυμιατήριον, λιβανωτρίς), the meals. The mattresses and feather-beds were incense-box or censer used in sacrifices. softer and higher, and the supports (fulcra) of them lower in proportion than in the triclinium. The clothes and pillows spread over them were called accubitalia.
ACCUBA'TIO, the act of reclining at meals. The Greeks and Romans were accustomed, in later times, to recline at their meals; but this practice could not have been of great antiquity in Greece, since Homer always describes persons as sitting at their meals; and Isidore of Seville, an ancient grammarian, also attributes the same custom to the ancient Romans. Even in the time of the early Roman emperors, children in families of the highest rank used to sit together, while their fathers and elders reclined on couches at the
Acerra, Incense-Box. upper part of the room. Roman ladies continued the practice of sitting at table, even
The acerra was also a small moveable altar after the recumbent position had become com- placed before the dead, on which perfumes mon with the other sex. It appears to have were burnt. The use of the accerrae at funebeen considered more decent, and more agree- rals was forbidden by a law of the Twelve able to the severity and purity of ancient Tables as an unnecessary expense, manners for women to sit, more especially A'CIES. [EXERCITUS.] if many persons were present. But, on the ACI’NACES (åkivárns), a Persian sword,
3 whence Horace speaks of the Medus acinaces. | (ůkpootóhcov), which was frequently made in The acinaces was a short and straight weapon, the shape of an animal or a helmet, &c., apand thus differed from the Roman sica, which pears to have been sometimes covered with was curved. It was worn on the right side of brass, and to have served as a weapon of the body, whereas the Greeks and Romans offence against the enemy's vessels. usually had their swords suspended on the left ACROTEʻRIUM (úkputýplov), signifies side. The form of the acinaces, with the mode the extremity of anything, and was applied by of wearing it, is illustrated by the following the Greeks to the extremities of the prow of Persepolitan figures.
a vessel (åkpooTółlov), which were usually taken from a conquered vessel as a mark of victory: the act of doing so was called ακρωτηριάζειν.
ACTA DIURNA (proceedings of the day), was a kind of gazette or newspaper published daily at Rome, under the authority of the government. It contained an account of the proceedings of the public assemblies, of the law courts, of the punishment of offenders, and a list of births, marriages, deaths, &c. The proceedings of the public assemblies and the law courts, were obtained by means of reporters (actuarii). The proceedings of the senate (acta senatus) were not published till the time of Julius Cæsar, but this custom was prohibited by Augustus. An account of the proceedings of the senate was still preserved, though not published, and some senator seems to have been chosen by the emperor to compile the account. The Acta Diurna, which were also called Acta populi, Acta publica, Acta
urbana, and by the simple name of Acta, were Acinaces, Persian Sword.
frequently consulted and appealed to by later ACLIS, a kind of dart with a leathern thong historians. attached to it. [AMENTUM.]
ACTA SENATUS. [Acta Diurna.] ACROA’MA (ůkpóqua), which properly ACTIA (ũktia), a festival celebrated every means anything heard, was the name given three years at Actium in Epirus, with wrestto a concert of players on different musical in- ling, horse-racing, and sea-fights, in honour of struments, and also to an interlude performed Apollo. There was a celebrated temple of during the exhibition of the public games. Apollo at Actium. After the defeat of Antony The word is also applied to the actors and off Actium, Augustus enlarged the temple, musicians who were employed to amuse and instituted games to be celebrated every guests during an entertainment, and is some-five years in commemoration of his victory. times used to designate the anagnostae. ACTIO, is defined by a Roman jurist to be [A NAGNOSTES.)
the right of pursuing by judicial means what ACROʻPOLÍS (åkpótors). In almost all is a man's due. Greek cities, which were usually built upon The old actions of the Roman law were a hill, rock, or some natural elevation, there called legis actiones or legitimae, either because was á castle or a citadel, erected upon the they were expressly provided for by the laws highest part of the rock or hill, to which the of the Twelve Tables, or because they were name of Acropolis, higher or upper city, was strictly adapted to the words of the laws, and given. Thus we read of an acropolis at Athens, therefore could not be varied. But these forms Corinth, Argos, Messene, and many other of action gradually fell into disuse, in conseplaces. The Capitolium at Rome answered quence of the excessive nicety required, and the same purpose as the acropolis in the the failure consequent on the slightest error Greek cities; and of the same kind were the in the pleadings, and they were eventually tower of Agathocles at Utica, and that of An- abolished by the Lex Aebutia, and two Leges tonia at Jerusalem.
Juliae, except in a few cases. ACROSTOL’IUM (ukpootóalov), the ex- In the old Roman constitution, the knowl tremity of the otóhos. The otóìos projected edge of the law was inost closely connected from the head of the prow, and its extremity I with the institutes and ceremonial of religion
ACTIO. and was accordingly in the hands of the pa- | or the subject matter of the suit, with the tricians alone, whose aid their clients were amount of damages, &c., as the case might obliged to ask in all their legal disputes. App. be. Claudius Caecus, perhaps one of the earliest When the praetor had granted an action, the writers on law, drew up the various forms of plaintiff required the defendant to give secuactions, probably for his own use and that of rity for his appearance before the praetor (in his friends: the manuscript was stolen or jure) on a day named, commonly the day but copied by his scribe Cn. Flavius, who made one after the in jus vocatio, unless the matter it public; and thus, according to the story, in dispute was settled at once. The defenthe plebians became acquainted with those dant, on finding a surety, was said vades dare, legal forms which hitherto had been the ex- vadimonium promittere, or facere; the surety, clusive property of the patricians. After the vas, was said spondere ; the plaintiff, when abolition of the old legal actions, a suit was satisfied with the surety,was said vadari reum, prosecuted in the following manner :
to let him go on his sureties, or to have sureAn action was commenced by the plaintiff ties from him. When the defendant promised summoning the defendant to appear before the to appear in jure on the day named, without praetor or other magistrate who had jurisdictio: giving any surety, this was called vadimonium this process was called in jus vocatio; and, ac purum. In some cases, recuperatores [JUDEX] cording to the laws of the Twelve Tables, was were named, who, in case of the defendant in effect a dragging of the defendant before the making default, condemned him in the sum of praetor, if he refused to go quietly; and al- money named in the vadimonium. Though this rude proceeding was somewhat If the defendant appeared on the day, ap. modified in later times, we find in the time of pointed, he was said vadimonium sistere ; if he Horace that the defendant ould not go did not appear, he was said vadimonium desequietly, the plaintiff called upon any bystander ruisse ; and the praetor gave to the plaintiff to witness, and dragged the defendant into the bonorum possessio. Both parties, on the court. The parties might settle their dispute day appointed, were summoned by a crier on their way to the court, or the defendant (praeco), when the plaintiff made his claim or might be bailed by a vindex. The vindex must demand, which was very briefly expressed, not be confounded with the vades. This set- and may be considered as corresponding to tlement of disputes on the way was called our declaration at law. transactio in via, and serves to explain a pas- The defendant might either deny the plainsage in St. Matthew, v., 25.
tiff's claim, or he might reply to it by a plea, When before the praetor, the parties were exceptio. If he simply denied the plaintiff's said jure agere. The plaintiff then prayed for claim, the cause was at issue, and a judex an action, and if the praetor allowed it (dabat might be demanded. The forms of the excepactionem), he then declared what action he in- tio, also, were contained in the praetor's edict, tended to bring against the defendant, which or, upon hearing the facts, the praetor adapthe called edere actionem. This might be done ed the plea to the case. in writing, or orally, or by the plaintiff taking The plaintiff might reply to the defendant's the defendant to the album [ALBUM], and show- exceptio. The plaintiff's answer was called ing him which action he intended to rely on. replicatio. If the defendant answered the reAs the formulae on the album comprehended, plicatio, his answer was called duplicatio ; and or were supposed to comprehend, every pos- the parties might go on to the triplicatio and sible form of action that could be required by quadruplicatio, and even further, if the matters a plaintiff, it was presumed that he could find in question were such that they could not among all the formulae some one which was otherwise be brought to an issue. adapted to his case; and he was, accordingly, A person might maintain or defend an acsupposed to be without excuse if he did not tion by his cognitor or procurator, or, as we take pains to select the proper formulae. If should say, by his attorney. The plaintiff he took the wrong one, or if he claimed more and defendant used a certain form of words than his due, he lost his cause (causa cadebat); in appointing a cognitor, and it would appear but the praetor sometimes gave him leave to that the appointment was made in the presamend his claim or intentio. It will be ob- ence of both parties. The cognitor needed served that as the formulae were so numerous not to be present, and his appointment was and comprehensive, the plaintiff had only to complete when by his acts he had signified select the formulae which he supposed to be his assent. suitable to his case, and it would require no When the cause was brought to an issue, farther variation than the insertion of the a judex or judices might be demanded of the names of the parties and of the thing claimed, I praetor, who named or appointed a judex, and