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MORTUARY REPORT.

579

Mortuary Report of the City of Galveston.

It will be seen, by a reference to the December number of this JOURNAL, that the number of deaths in the city were 513. Of these 382 were natives of America, and the remainder, 131, foreigners. That the greatest were during August, and the least in January. This report is very imperfect and only can be relied on as to number, as the diseases were written in the Sexton's book in every common name, and we have classified them according to the register used at Island City Hospital. This number of deaths occurred alone amongst the citizens, as no soldiers are reported in this list, but deaths from the Island City Hospital are included in this report. This hospital receives patients from the Custom House, (sailors); from the city of Galveston and from the Chief Justice of the county, (paupers and insane persons); from Foreign Consuls, the Freedmen's Bureau, and private patients. In this institution, it will be seen from the report, that there have been treated in hospital 829; of these 56 have died, being a ratio of 6.9 to number treated while if we take the number of deaths from the hospital from those who died in the city there will be left 448 which, to the population, would be one in 2.90 per hundred of citizens. The greatest number of admissions into hospital was in September (105), and the least in April (35). During the year we have had epidemics of rubeola, which caused the increase of patients. In January and in April we had variola, which prevented many from coming to the hospital, where quite a number were treated. In August and September we had cholera and yellow fever in the hospital, there being in the hospital during the month of August 13 cases and three deaths of yellow fever. There were from the sailors brought to hospital 7 cases; and four took it in hospital; one came from the city-Washington Hotel,—was a waiter; and one was a negro from New Orleans, sent to hospital from Mr. McCloskey's.

There were no cases reported in city, and only one case reported yellow fever in the Sexton's report. That case died from black vomit and was a patient in the hospital with consumption the time he was taken. We treated in hospital 25 cases of cholera; of these 12 died.

There are reported in the Sexton's report 41 deaths besides the soldiers. This report is not accurate, and from the various sources of information I have estimated that we had about 300 cases of cholera in the city, including the soldiers, and from that number there have died 22 soldiers, and 12 from hospital, and in the city 65, making a sum total of 99, or one in three taken, and one in about 150 inhabitants. Cholera was introduced into the city on the night of the 22d of July by soldiers from Heart's Island, and spread to the camps, and from camp to freedmen, from freedmen to citizens, so commenced in the heart of the city and spread to all parts, and finally disappeared in January.

580

GALVESTON MEDICAL JOURNAL.

Senators of the First Session XXXIX. Congress.

The following table, showing the physical characteristics of the present members of the U.S. Senate, was prepared in July, 1866, by Frank Cowan, Esq., with great care, from actual measurements made by himself. This table, with an able introductory article, and the Etymologies of the names of the Senators, alphabetically arranged, was published in Sutton's Reporter of January 14th, 1867:

TABLE OF THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MEMBERS OF THE SENATE.

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NOTE.-The above measurements of height were taken with boots on-measurements of chest over vest but under coat.

It appears from this physical survey of the personnel of the U. S. Senate that the tallest member "is Mr. Cowan; the shortest, Mr. Davis; while fourteen of the forty are six feet in height; the heaviest, Mr. Van Winkle; the lightest, Mr. Riddle; while twelve weigh two hundred or more. The Senator with the largest chest, Mr. Pomeroy; the smallest, Mr. Riddle; while nineteen have chests measuring in circumference forty inches or more; the possessors of the largest heads are Messrs. Grimes, Nesmith, Pomeroy, and Van Winkle; the smallest, Mr. Lane, of Indiana; while thirty have heads measuring in circumference twenty-three inches or more; the oldest, Mr. Wright; the youngest Mr. Sprague; and thirty-one have lived for more than half a century."

The foregoing table shows that in all the points observed our Senators exceed the average of mankind in all parts of the world as well as the average of our own country. As legislative bodies in their selection bear a certain relationship to the masses of the people, so do their averages bear a relationship one to the other; but whether or not these averages are proportionate has not yet been ascertained. That is whether or not the higher and more select the body the more striking the relationship between it and the people from which it is selected. The investigation started by Mr. F. Cowan is novel and as yet has not been carried far enough nor contrasted with similar legislative bodies in other countries to make the deductions which more extensive investigations in this direction will enable us to do. Is it true that because the average of physical development of our Senators is greater than the average of their countrymen, that, therefore, they have greater mental and moral power?

That lineage and race stamp mental and moral characteristics and capacities as well as physical peculiarities upon individuals is a well recognized fact in the science of ethnology.

The lineage or nationalities deduced from the etymology of the names of the Senators differ slightly from those given by themselves, but the variation is so trifling as not to impair the law.

582

GALVESTON MEDICAL JOURNAL.

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English. | Scotch. Welsh. German. Dutch. French. | Irish.

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NOTE.-Six not given.

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The preponderance of Senators of English descent is very great. the proportion of nationalities represented in our whole population is known the significance of these figures will be increased.

From the interesting and carefully prepared table of Mr. Frank Cowan it appears that the average "age of the Senators was on the 1st of July, 1866, 51 years, 11 months and 14 days."

The mean lifetime or average duration of life in America, as inferred from elaborate examinations of records of population and mortality in Massachusetts, and of other States from data worked up by Mr. E. B. Elliott, M.A., delegate from the American Statistical Association to the late International Statistical Congress at Berlin, Prussia, 1863, is about forty years; this does not differ essentially from the average in England and Wales, and in France, but is somewhat higher than in Prussia and certain other European countries.

The mean age of a generation in America considered as stationary, as derived from the same records, that is, between 32 and 33 years, and the mean future lifetime of such generation is also between 32 and 33 years.

The mean age and also the mean future lifetime of a generation of people in England are each nearly the same--that is, between 32 and 33 years.

During the working period of life, say from the age of 15 to 45, and also in early infancy, the rate of mortality appears to be somewhat greater in the United States than in England. During the remaining period—that is, childhood and advance years—it is less here. The rate of mortality among infants on the continent appears in general to exceed the American rates.

The average age of soldiers in the volunteer forces of the United States during the late civil war was from 23 to 26 years; that army, as would probably prove the case with all volunteer armies having been supplied and recruited mainly from the young.

Mr. Elliot has shown that the mortality of soldiers at specified ages of life in the army diminishes rapidly with advancing age, and in accordance with a very simple law-that is, that the differences of the numbers at different ages of life diminish very nearly by a geometrical progression.

The average ages of the solders in the British Army (not recruits) serving at home in 1860, was twenty-three years. The average age of European troops in India for ten years—from 1847 to 1857—was twenty-three and a half years.

The average age of soldiers, officers and men serving in the Prussian army in 1861 was twenty-three and a half years.

The average height of the Senators of the thirty-ninth Congress, according to the measurements of Mr. Cowan, is about seventy and one-half (701) inches, (or five feet ten and a half inches); which is about two and a half inches (or 3 per cent.) in excess of the average height of mankind.

The average height of men in general is probably about sixty-eight inches. The height of recruits to the late volunteer forces of the United States, according to Mr. Elliott's data, was from sixty-seven to sixty-eight inches. That of recruits to the Regular Army of the United States for a series of years prior to the late war appears to have been nearer sixty-nine (68.8) inches.

From the report of the Provost Marshal General of the United States we find that in the examination of 237,391, the average height barefooted was found to be nearly sixty-seven and a half inches.

While in forty-seven nationalites collected in the same report, the average of 343,764 examined, the average height was found to be sixty-six and threequarter inches nearly.

That of recruits to the British army in the years of 1860 and 1861 was sixty-six and one-half (664) inches. That of British soldiers (not recruitsbut in general older and consequently somewhat taller than recruits), in 1846, was sixty eight and one-half (68.51) inches. That of French conscripts for a long series of years, sixty-five and one-fifth (65.21) United States inches. That of French soldiers sixty-five and three-fourths (65.77) United States inches. From that it appears that the French soldier is somewhat shorter than either the English or American; the two latter being nearly the same height.

The mean variation of the height of the American volunteers from the average height was about two inches; being the same in excess as in defect. The average measurement about the chest of the Senators is 38 inches, which exceeds somewhat that of men generally. The circumference of the chest (taken under the coat and vest) of United States volunteers of the late army of the Potomac was about thirty-five (35) inches. The mean variation of the measurements from the average circumference of these soldiers was one and two-third inches; and the same in excess as in defect.

The three States presenting the tallest average men, according to the Provost Marshal's report: Minnesota, sixty-seven inches and ninety-one hundredths; Kansas, sixty-seven and thirty-five hundredths; Kentucky, sixty-seven and thirty-four hundredths. The shortest, the District of Columbia, sixty-six inches; West Virginia, sixty-five inches and twenty-eight hundredths; and New Hampshire, sixty-five inches and twelve hundredths.

The average chest measurements, as given in the Provost Marshal General's report, thirty-five inches and sixty-one hundredths on respiration, and thirtythree and eleven hundredths of an inch on expiration. The same measurementscollected from forty-seven nationalities found in the same report is to be -on respiration-35.59; on expiration, 33,12.

The three States giving the largest average chest measurements on inspiration were Kentucky, (36.37) thirty-six inches and thirty-seven hundredths; Maine, (36.05) thirty-six inches and five hundredths; and Illinois, (36.16) thirty-six inches and sixteen hundredths. The smallest, Rhode Island, (33.00) inches; New Hampshire, (34.32) inches; and Massachusetts, (34.34) inches.

The weight of the Senators was about 1711 pounds avoirdupois; that of soldiers in the army of the Potomac having been about 147 pounds, which probably differs but little from, although, perhaps, somewhat less than the average weight of Americans generally.

The weight of recruits, already mentioned, to the British army in 1860 and 1861 was nearly one hundred and thirty pounds, (1294), which is somewhat less than that of the American soldiers, but their ages were also less, consequently some such difference might be expected.

The average circumference of the heads of the Senators, taken a little lower than the hat is usually worn, is about twenty-two and five-sixths (22.83) inches; that of the U. S. volunteers above mentioned having been about

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