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manors the King holds in his own hand". Hamo le Botiler stands first, and Rogerus de P'stone next.

6 Edward I (1277-8).-Pleas at Albo Monasterio bef. R'de Ferryngham, Adam de Montgomer complains v. Llew. Pr. of Wales that he took his grain at Clynnoc and carried it away. Pleadge, Roger Sprenhoose and Rog. de Pyvelesdon. (Exchequer Rolls, Wallia Miscellaneous Bag., No. 38, M.I.)

In 12 Edward I (1284) he is appointed Sheriff and Vice-comes of Anglesey (Ayloffe's Rot. Wall., 89), and the expression "consimiles literas", quoted above, shows that it was his brother Richard who received the same offices in Caernarvon. After the death of David, the last Prince of Wales (A.D. 1282), "Governors" of Caernarvon were appointed: 1. Maidenhaache; 2. John de Havering, 21 Oct. 1289. The title was then changed to "Constable", and these were-3. Ada. de Wetenhall; 4. Roger Pulesdon, who died in 1294, when the office ceased. Roger is said to have married "Agnes" [Jane in Dwnn's Pedigree], daughter of David le Clerk, Baron of Malpas, by his second wife, called also Angharad, by whom he had a son and heir, Richard. (Cae Cyriog MS.)

23 May, 12 Edward I.-Rex præcepit Camerario suo de Caernarvon quod allocaret Rog. de Pyvelesdon, Vice-Comi. de Anglesey pro servitio suo 20li. de redditu. Firmæ istius manerii quod idem Rog'us tenuit de Rege in Anglesey.

18 Edward I, 13 May.-Rex precepit eodem Camerario allocare Rogero de Pyvelesdon Vic. de Anglesey in primo computo suo 68li. 4s. 11d. de exitibus officii sui predicti per ipsum Rogerum in negotiis Regis ibidem expens:

17 Edward I.-Pivelesdon, Roger de, and Joan, his wife, guardians of William, son and heir of Thomas de Venables, against the Abbot of Chester. Right of presentation to the Church of Astebury. (App. to 26th Report, Welsh Records, No. 4, p. 39.)

In the Hist. of Wales, by Caradoc of Llancarvan,

under date 1293-4, it is said: "King Edward was now in actual enmity and war with the King of France, for the carrying on of which he wanted a liberal subsidy and supply from his subjects. This tax was, with a great deal of passion and reluctancy, levied in divers places of the kingdom, but more especially in Wales; the Welch, never being acquainted with such large contributions before, violently stormed and exclaimed against it. But, not being satisfied with vilifying the King's command, they took their own Captain, Roger de Puelesdon, who was appointed collector of the said subsidy, and hanged him, together with divers others who abetted the collecting of the tax;" and on page 307: "the King being acquainted with these insurrections, and desirous to quell the stubbornness of the Welch, but most of all to revenge the death of his great favourite, Roger de Puelesdon, recalled his brother Edmund, Earl of Lancaster," etc. "The collection of the tax must have commenced in 1293; see Ayloffe's Rotuli Walliæ, Dec 29, A.D. 1293, p. 99; and Puleston's murder must have taken place after 18th Jan. 1294, for on that day he witnesses at Emral-being then a knight—a deed, to which Richard de Puleston is a party." (E. Breese's Kalendars of Gwynedd, p. 48.)

Madog, an illegitimate son of Llywelyn ab Gruffydd, the last sovereign Prince of Wales, was at the head of this revolt, and he afterwards defeated the English under the command of the King's brother near Denbigh. In vol. xiv of the Lancashire and Cheshire Record Society, the "Annales Cestrienses" (recently issued) contain the following, under A.D. 1295: “Et circa festum sancti Petri ad vincula [Augs't] captus est Madocus princeps Walliæ per dominum Johannem de Haveryngs tunc justiciarium Walliæ qui eum London misit ad regem ;" and "1296, post_pascha captus fuit Griffinus ecloyt (Clwyd) a domino Johanne de Haverryngys et ductus London."

In vol. ii of his Tours in Wales, pp. 398-9, T. Pen

nant says: "At Caernarvon a very antient house called Plas Pulesdon is remarkable for the fate of its first owner, etc. The representative of the place is elected by its burgesses, and those of Conwy, Pwllheli, Nefyn, and Crickaeth. The first member was John Puleston; and the second time it sent representatives, which was in 1st Edward VI, it chose Robert Puleston, and the county elected John, as if both town and county determined to make reparation to the family for the cruelty practised on its ancestor."

1305 (33 Edward I).-Petition made to the Prince of Wales at Kennington, by Griffin Vychan and others, that they had been compelled to pay four marks yearly by Roger de Puleston, Viscount of Anglesey; which was inquired into by John de Havering, late Justice of North Wales, and certified to be unjust, under the seals of a jury of twenty-four. (Emral MS.)

In a writ, dated from Berwick-upon-Tweed, 4th July, 7 Edward II, the King pardons Adas Goch de Worthynbury pro morte Joh'nis de Cornyfer, et Rog'i le Maillour de Ov'ton Madoc, and for all transgressions in our reign or the last. [Does this refer to the death of Roger Puleston?] (Broughton MSS.)

The Rev. J. H. Ward, of Gussage St. Michael, Dorset, thinks that Emral may, in British or Phonician times, have been a réuevos (locus consecratus), and he notices that the French name for Stonehenge is nupnis, the letters of which, in their numerical value, make up the cycle 366.




(Reprinted from the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, Dec. 1, 1887, by permission of the Council, and with the Author's sanction.)


So far as I am aware, no detailed description of the Roman station at Llanio, in the parish of Llanddewibrefi, Cardiganshire, has ever been given to the Society. The inscribed stones that have been found here have been the subject of much speculation; but I have only been able to find allusions to the place, and no regular account of it, or of the articles which have been found there from time to time, in the Society's Proceedings. I have therefore ventured to bring together in this paper such information as I could collect from previous writers and from local inquiries.

Llanio-isa is situated on the left bank of the Teifi (Tuerobius), close to the Manchester and Milford Railway, between Tregaron and Lampeter, about a mile on the Lampeter side of the Pont Llanio Station. It is about seven miles from Lampeter, and three from Tregaron. It may be questionable whether or not it is the ancient Loventium mentioned thus by Ptolemy: "Again, south from the countries before mentioned, but in the most western part, are the Dimetæ, among whom are these towns: Loventium, long. 15° 45', lat. 55° 10′; Maridunum, long. 15° 30', lat. 55° 40'. easterly than these are the Silyres, whose town is Bullæum;" but that it was a Roman station of some importance is clear from the extent of ground it occupied. It was situate at the junction of two roads, one from Maridunum (Carmarthen), which followed the


course of the Teifi, and of which traces can still be seen near Llanbyther, at Maes-y-Gaer,' and Lampeter; the other, the Sarn Helen, so called, according to the local tradition, from having been made by a Roman empress named Helen,' which started from Llanfairarybryn (Llandovery), passed by Caio, the gold mines of Gogofau, a Roman villa at a place called "Tre Goch", found and destroyed about 1876, followed the valley of the Twrch, by the modern villages of Farmers, Llanycrwys, thence over Craig Twrch to Llanfairclydogau, and proceeding northwards crossed the Teifi to Llanio. From Llanio it proceeds still northwards past Llanbadarnodwyn and a fort called Pen-y-Gaer, or Garnllwyd, by another large fort known as Castell Flemish, and thence on to the mineral district of North Cardiganshire. The line of road, so far as it can now be clearly traced, is marked on the Ordnance Map. In parts this road is still well defined, as on the north side from Pen-y-Gaer to Llanio, and on the south from Llanfairclydogau to the Carmarthenshire boundary; here it is hardly altered, and it is said that up to a few years before 1861 this part of the road was in admirable preservation, twenty feet broad, and well barrelled towards the middle; but the Cardiganshire magistrates sitting at Lampeter ordered it to be destroyed, in spite of the remonstrances of their


The approaches to Llanio were well guarded; on the northern side was the strong camp of Castell Flemish, a fort which is still in a fair state of preservation. About a mile nearer Llanio on the other side of the valley is Pen-y-Gaer, a fort of which but little remains, but from its position it must have been strong. On the east, about two miles up the Teifi, is Tomen Llanio; but this, if a fort, is probably not a

1 Arch. Camb., 4th Ser., vol. ix, p. 344.

2 Wright, The Celt, the Roman, and the Saxon, p. 144.
3 Arch. Camb., 4th Ser., vol. ix, p. 320.
4 Ibid.

5 Ibid., vol. vii, p. 309.

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