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privates, with their rifles, four officers, six subalterns, 96 carriers, three guns, and most of the baggage. The Wahehe army numbered 3,000, and 700 were left dead on the field. Major von Wissmann, in December, procured 300 Soudanese soldiers in Egypt to replace the German losses in this battle.
Zanzibar.-Under the security given by the British protectorate, Zanzibar was rapidly becoming the centre of trade for East Africa.
A remarkable increase of tonnage was apparent in the shipping trade. For the six months ending September 30, the net tonnage entered was 131,000, and for the previous six months 72,000. The Sultan, by the advice of the British Consul-General, Mr. Gerald Portal, had provided the entrance to the harbour with buoys at considerable expense, and was ready to provide the whole coast with lights if the actual expenses could be met. by levying harbour and light dues. With the Sultan's consent, a government consisting of British and native officials was formed at Zanzibar in October, which it was hoped would much increase the commercial importance of the port. General Mathews took the office of Prime Minister, with the approval of the Sultan, and the assent of the other members of the Government appointed at the same time. The revenue, except a sum of three lakhs of rupees annually reserved for the Sultan's privy purse, was to be expended for police, for harbour improvements, and for public works, under supervision of the Sultan and the British ConsulGeneral. The Sultan exerted himself to suppress the sale of spirits in his dominions, and licenses for limited sales to Europeans were procurable only from the Consul-General. The Sultan decreed in December that the import duties from foreign countries would be abolished February 1, 1892, except those on alcoholic liquors, arms, munitions of war, kerosene oil, and explosives. Great enthusiasm was displayed at a public meeting of merchants, where Mr. Portal, the Consul-General, announced this decree.
Sierra Leone.-Requests were made by English merchants. that Great Britain should assume a protectorate over the Samory country, but this conflicted with a recent treaty made with the French Government, by which it was agreed that Sierra Leone should not extend beyond the Niger, so that it was too late to urge the extension of English influence into a sphere assigned to France by definite treaty.
Certain native tribes, north of Grand Cape Mount, rebelled and appealed to the British at Sierra Leone for protection. The Liberian republic in December was on the point of sending troops to suppress the movement.
In June the French annexed nearly 200 miles of coast, under claim of the Governor of Konakry, who proceeded thither with
two war vessels, and declared the territory from St. Andreas to Cavally to be under French rule, and that it had belonged to the French for many years. Part of this coast had, however, been claimed by Liberia for nearly a century. The affair caused much excitement, which was partly appeased by the Governor's promise that no Customs duties would be levied for some months at least. A British frontier police force, under Captain Campbell, met with a severe repulse from the natives at a town on the borders of the British settlement. An official visit to the tribes in the interior by Governor Llewellyn, of Bathurst, who proceeded up the river to arrange for trading facilities, was made early in the summer.
Congo Free State.-A regulation was made that all steamers going to the Upper Congo must have their cargoes inspected to prevent the sale of arms and ammunition to the Arab slavehunters. The manager of the Dutch Company on the Upper Congo ordered his steamers to disregard this rule, and when the Dutch vessels were forcibly inspected, complaints were made of illegal interference. The slave-hunters, finding their passage across the river Aruwimi intercepted by the Congo State forces, crossed the Roubi and threatened Djobbir.
After the Brussels Conference the Congo State reduced the tariffs which injured trade. In 1890 the Free State exported ivory to the value of 4,668,887 francs. A reduction of duties, amounting to 7 per cent. on this commodity, was effected, leaving a duty of 10 per cent. ad valorem. India-rubber duties were also reduced to 10 per cent. Certain other taxes were reduced
An expedition was sent out in May, under the command of Captain Stairs, to take possession of the Katanga copper region, in the interests of the Anglo-Belgian Katanga Company and the Congo Free State. Captain Stairs, who accompanied Stanley in his Emin Pasha expedition, received the active support of King Leopold in this enterprise. Among the leading members of his staff were Lieut. Badson, the Marquis de Bonchamps, and Dr. Moloney. Five hundred men were to be enlisted at Zanzibar, and the route via Tanganyika was intended to be taken.
Niger District.-Major Claude MacDonald was appointed British Commissioner for the Oil rivers and Niger territories in March.
Northern Zambesia.-Mr. H. H. Johnston, who was brought into prominence in 1889, in connection with the Serpa Pinta affair, was appointed in March to be her Majesty's Commissioner for the territories within the British sphere of influence lying north of the Zambesi; also to be Consul-General for Portuguese East Africa. Lieutenant Sclater, of the Royal Engineers, who was to be in command of the police in Ayassaland, received per
mission to accompany him. The total area of the plateau region in Central Africa entrusted to Mr. Johnston's care was about 600,000 square miles, with a present population of nearly a inillion, including 300 Arabs and about 400 Swahelis, who are the slave raiders and ivory stealers that disturb the peace of the country. In addition to the allowances made by the Imperial Government, a subsidy of 10,000l. per annum was granted by the British South African Company to Mr. Johnston. Three Vice-Consuls were appointed to serve under the Consul-General, Mr. W. Sharpe, an experienced officer, being chief.
Emin Pasha.-News came from Emin and Dr. Stuhlmann that they had left Mwamba for Kibiro about the beginning of July, with all their porters and goods. Emin declared that it was not his intention to return by the same route. On September 2 he had been already three months in the Albert Nyanza district, and had been received with the greatest enthusiasm by his former troops. Captain Lugard, with 300 regular and 700 irregular soldiers, was sent to oppose his further advance, but they were unlikely to meet him. In December he was probably reinstated at Wadelai.
Uganda. A treaty was concluded in March with the King of Uganda in behalf of the British East African Company, but in July affairs were in a very disquieting state. Captain Lugard, with a force belonging to the Company, attempted to preserve order, but he was not strong enough to keep the balance of the contending parties. A feud existed between the Romanists and Protestants, and they were farther than ever from agreement. The Company contemplated abandoning Uganda altogether. The Mussulmans were becoming aggressive, and in the autumn Captain Lugard defeated them in a battle near Uganda. From the latest reports the Christians were in a doubtful position.
I. UNITED STATES.
THE Condition of political parties in the Congress of the United States, Jan. 1, 1891 (the second session of the Fifty-first Congress), was as follows:-In the Senate-Republicans, 51; Democrats, 37. In the House of Representatives-Republicans, 178; Democrats, 154; Levi P. Morton, of New York, being VicePresident of the United States and President of the Senate, and Thomas B. Reed, of Maine, Speaker of the House of Representatives. The Cabinet of President Harrison included James G. Blaine, of Maine, Secretary of State; William Windom, of Minnesota, Secretary of the Treasury; Redfield Proctor, of Vermont, Secretary of War; Benjamin F. Tracy, of New York,
Secretary of the Navy; John W. Noble, of Missouri, Secretary of the Interior; Jeremiah M. Rusk, of Wisconsin, Secretary of Agriculture; John H. Wanamaker, of Pennsylvania, PostmasterGeneral; and W. H. H. Miller, of Indiana, Attorney-General.
The Senate passed a free coinage measure, Jan. 14, providing that the United States unit of value should be a dollar coined of 412 grains of standard silver, or 25% grains of standard gold, giving all bullion owners authority to deposit bullion for coinage, and making all certificates issued for gold or silver legal tender. The radical character of the Bill, however, caused its defeat in the House of Representatives in February. The opposition in the Atlantic States to free silver coinage was very strong, but in the Western States many held to the delusion that there was need of an increase to the volume of currency to stimulate trade, as well as to give facilities for the payment of mortgages and debts. There was great danger of causing a premium on gold and driving it out of the country by this silver legislation. The average bullion value of a silver dollar in 1890 was 81 cents., and in 1889 it was only 72 cents.
An Act was passed, Feb. 7, making an apportionment of representatives in Congress among the several States under the Eleventh Census, by which the House of Representatives, after March 3, 1893, was to consist of 356 members, each member to represent 173,901 population, which was fixed as the ratio of representation.
After many vicissitudes, the Copyright Bill passed both Houses, and was signed by the President. This was accomplished chiefly through the exertions of Senator Platt, of Connecticut. A very important amendment offered by Senator Sherman had passed the Senate, which allowed the importation of copyright books on payment of a duty of 25 per cent. ad valorem, but this was rejected by the House of Representatives. Finally, the amendment was dropped in the Conference Committee, enabling the Bill to be passed in the last moments of the session. A feature of the Act, which required that a book by a foreign author should be printed in the United States, if it were to be copyright, appeared to give a great advantage to American printers and publishers.
It was the policy of the Secretary of State during the year to negotiate reciprocity treaties with different countries having trade with the United States. One, affecting Cuba, was arranged with Spain, and another was made with Brazil. A commercial agreement was concluded with the British West Indies and British Guiana, whereby, in return for the continued free introduction of sugar and coffee from those colonies, the latter agreed not only to enlarge greatly the free list of their Customs duties, but to make reductions in their tariff charges upon the products of the United States.
The Indian troubles in the North-West that had broken out
at the close of the preceding year for some time were unsettled. The Government endeavoured to prevent further bloodshed, but the Interior Department officials were opposed to General Miles's policy of segregating the Indian tribes, and that caused delay. Lieutenant Edward Casey, a very promising young officer of the 22nd Infantry, was killed while venturing too near the camp of the hostiles at Pine Ridge, and at Wounded Knee there was a massacre of Indian women and children through their needless exposure to the fire of the troops, which only served to rouse a still more bitter feeling amongst the tribes. Raids by hostile Sioux continued for a considerable time to alarm the white settlers. There could be no doubt but that the Indians had good reasons for complaint, for they had been long defrauded of their legal supplies of food and clothing by dishonest Government agents. The Indians at last submitted, and most of them surrendered their arms to the United States forces, and the President gave orders for the agencies to be placed for the time being under the military control of the War Department. The total Indian population in the United States, exclusive of those in Alaska, was officially stated to be 250,483. The report of the Secretary of the Interior ascribed the troubles with the Sioux to various causes, such as their own warlike feeling, the influence of Sitting Bull, added to their belief that a new Messiah had come to deliver them, the failure of their crops in two successive years, and the reduction of the rations issued to them. Besides, there were promises made them by the Sioux Commission which were not carried out because of the failure of Congress to sanction them.
A long diplomatic correspondence on the Behring's Sea dispute continued between the State Department and the British Foreign Office, but no great progress was made towards a settlement of the question. On Jan. 12 it was taken into the United States Supreme Court by Sir John Thompson, and a motion was made by Mr. Joseph Choate in behalf of Canada for a writ of prohibition commanding the United States District Court in Alaska, to annul the proceedings by which the Canadian sealer, W. P. Sayward, was libelled in 1889. This schooner was seized by the United States revenue cutter Rush, while cruising for seals nine miles from shore in Behring's Sea, was taken to Alaska, and there condemned by the district magistrate. The Supreme Court granted leave (Feb. 2) to file the application for the writ. A modus vivendi, to expire May 15, 1892, and largely due to these proceedings, was arranged between the two Governments, by which the claims of the United States for the time were virtually allowed. Sir Baden-Powell and Professor Dawson were appointed in June as commissioners for Great Britain to proceed to Behring's Sea, and they were expected to report on every phase of the sealing question. Two commissioners were appointed by the United States Government to make a similar investigation. Early in July the schooner E. B. Marvin, from