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ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, HISTORY, POLITICS AND
A NEW EDITION;
A COPIOUS COLLECTION OF ORIGINAL ARTICLES
THE BASIS OF THE SEVENTH EDITION OF THE GERMAN
BLANCHARD AND LEA.
EASTERN DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA, to wit i
BE IT REMEMBERED, that on the tenth day of August, in the fifty-fourth year of the Independent of the United States of America, A. D. 1829, Carey, Lea & Carey, of the said district, have deposited in this office the title of a book, the right whereof they claim as proprietors, in the words following, to wit
"Encyclopædia Americana. A Popular Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature, History, Politics and Biography, brought down to the present Time; including a copious Collection of Original Articles American Biography; on the Basis of the seventh Edition of the German Conversations-Lexicon. Edited by Francis Lieber, assisted by E. Wigglesworth."
In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, entitled, "An Act for the encouragement o learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned:" and also to the act, entitled, "An Act supplementary to an act, entitled, 'An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned;' and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving and etching historical and other prints."
Clerk of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.
Printed by T. K. & P. G Collins
CRANTARA RANTARA (Gaelic, crean tarigh); the cross of shame, because, says sir Walter Scott, in his note on the passage of the Lady of the Lake (canto 3), in which he has made such a fine use of it, disobedience to what the symbol implied, inferred infamy. The Highlanders of Scotland appear to have borrowed it from the ancient Scandinavians, of the use of it among whom, for rousing the people to arms, Olaus Magnus gives a particular count. As late as the insurrection in 1745, the crantara, or fiery cross, was cirulated in Scotland, and, on one occasion, it passed through the district of Breadalbane, a tract of 32 miles, in three hours. After Charles Edward had marched into England, two of the king's frigates threatened the coast with a descent. The crantara was sent through the district of Appine by Alexander Stuart of Invernahyle (who related the circumstance to sir Walter Scott), and, in a few hours, a sufficient force was collected to render the attempt of the English hopeless.
CRAPE; a light, transparent stuff, like gauze, made of raw silk, gummed and twisted on the mill, woven without crossing, and much used in mourning. Crapes are either craped (i. e., crisped) or smooth. The silk destined for the first is more twisted than that for the second, it being the greater or less degree of twisting, especially of the warp, which produces the crisping given to it, when taken out of the loom, steeped in clear water, and rubbed with a piece of wax for the purpose. Crapes are all dyed raw. This stuff came originally from Bologna; but, till of late years, Lyons is said to have had the chief manufacture of it. It is now manufactured in various parts of Great Britain. The
crape brought from China is of a more substantial fabric.
CRAPELET; father and son; two printers. The father, Charles, born at Bourmont, Nov. 13, 1762, established his printingoffice in 1789, and died Oct. 19, 1809. He might be called the French Baskerville. Like this printer, he endeavored to unite the greatest simplicity with elegance, to deliver the art of printing from the heterogeneous ornaments with which it was so overloaded, particularly in France, and from which even Didot could not entirely free himself; but he surpassed his model in the form of his types and the regularity of his work. His editions are no less correct than neat and beautiful. He has also been successful in printing on parchinent, and has shown his skill by producing an impression in gold (13 copies of Audebert's Oiseaux dorés, Paris, 1802, 2 vols., folio).-A. G. Crapelet has extended his father's business, and has even excelled him in elegance. His Lafontaine (1814), Montesquieu (1816), Rousseau and Voltaire (both 1819), are monuments of his taste; and the large vellum-paper copies are truly splendid works. The words "De l'imprimerie de Crapelet" are a great recommendation. Renouard has had all the editions published at his expense printed by Crapelet, who, in 1800, employed 22 presses.
CRASSUS. Two Romans of this name are here to be mentioned. 1. Lucius Licinius Crassus, who was made consul A. U. C. 658 (B. C. 96), and passed for the greatest orator of his time. He was distinguished for talent, presence of mind and integrity. 2. M. Licinius Crassus, surnamed Dives (the rich), so called, like many of his family, on account of his vast
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