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The whole distance from Stony-hill
to Tekoa, by this route is
The second line is called the End Brook route. It passes straight from Stony-hill to Hog-pen dingle (a small branch of Chickopee river) crossing in its course a part of Dimick pond, and Five mile pond. From the Hogpen dingle, it curves gently into the ravine of End-Brook, and follows the valley of this stream to Daniel Hitchcock's, descending at a grade of 36.16 and 55.00 feet per mile. From Hitchcock's, two routes across the river were surveyed—the first to unite with the Cabotville line, near Bush's Notch, and the second to unite with the Garden Brook-line (hereafter to be described) near Ashley's mill, on the Westfield river. The first, or northern branch, leaves the valley of End-Brook, at Hitchcock's, and passes straight across the river, about midway between Cabotville and Springfield, by a bridge 700 feet long, to the ravine of Darby Brook, a small stream which enters the Connecticut, near the West Springfield Meeting-house; following a branch of this stream to its source, at grades of 54.30 and 38.25 feet, it turns north and falls into the ravine of another branch (the same upon which Pliny Bagg resides) thence crossing the heads of Ashley's brook and Block brook, it pursues a N. W. course, until it unites with the Cabotville line, a short distance east of Bush's Notch.
The distance by this route is
Miles · 20.85
55.00 $386,958.96 $18,560.00
The south branch of the End Brook route, being the third line examined, deflects from the north branch, at Hitchcock's, as before stated ; and by a curve to the south it continues to descend the valley of End Brook, at a grade of 52.80 feet to the river, opposite the W. Springfield common ; crossing the Connecticut at this point by a bridge of 970 feet long, it pursues a direct course to its junction with the Garden Brook route at Ashley's mill.
The distance by this route is
52.80 $ 291,440.97 $13,091.00
The fourth line is the Garden Brook route. This line as approximately located, is straight from Stony hill to the head of Garden Brook ; crossing in its course Loon pond, and the south part of Five mile pond, by introducing two curves of 2 miles radius, as at present proposed, and represented upon the map, a better line would be obtained, that is to say, one of the ponds would be wholly avoided, and the other would be crossed at a very narrow part of it, and where the depth is but 12 to 14 feet, and in addition it would facilitate the entrance of the route into the Garden Brook valley. The distance would be increased by this alteration 300 feet or 0.05 per mile. This line descends from the plain at an uniform grade of 45.07 feet per mile ; passes through the village of Springfield, and crosses the Connecticut by a bridge 1200 feet long at a point between the present bridge and Ferry street; thence by a curve of a mile radius, it winds into the valley of the Westfield river, and falls upon the stream at Ashley's mills, in the western part of W. Springfield, and unites at that point with the south branch of the End Brook route. From Ashley's mill to Morley's bridge, about 4 miles, the line continues upon the north side of the river, and generally near its margin, ascending at easy grades. From a point, a short distance beyond Morley's bridge, to Tekoa, two distinct routes were surveyed, one on the north, and the other on the south side of the Westfield Great River. Continuing by the north side, it will be necessary to embank to the height of about 8 feet for a distance of a mile, over the Westfield meadows, to guard against the effects of freshets. The greater part of the material required to form the embankment can be thrown up from the sides and ditches. Crossing the Hampshire and Hampden canal by a draw-bridge, the line passes over very favorable ground, until it reaches the canal feeder near Tekoa. At this place it comes in contact with the feeder, and to provide a passage for both, it will be necessary to cut through the rock which forms the point of Tekoa, or pass the road over the feeder. The line as at present located, is upon the feeder bank, for a distance of 6000 feet. The width of this bank might be increased. But without considerable expense in giving it a proper foundation, by introducing substantial side walls along the river, it would be subject to the same evil which attends the feeder. The distance by this route is
Miles 22.02 Maximum grade
Feet 45.07 Estimate
$308,215.50 Per mile
$ 14,000.00 The sixth route is the Mill-River route. This line was surveyed and located, under the direction of Mr. Fessenden, in 1835. The estimate of the cost of grading this line, has been made up in the same manner that the estimates of the other lines have been made, (the grades themselves are Mr. Fessenden's). In order to connect it with our lines, it has been carried from the point at which it terminated near State street, to the river at the present crossing place of the Garden Brook line, between the bridge and Ferry Street.
From the point of Stony hill, the Mill River line, like the others, is straight, in its course over the plain ; after falling upon the river near Scott's house, it pursues the valley, with frequent crossings of the streain, to avoid abrupt curvature, and descending at grades of 43, 16, 5, 21, and 42 ft. per mile, it turns the point of the high bank, near Mill Street, and from thence to its termination at State Street, it follows the same bank, nearly parallel to the Connecticut River ; from State Street, it was connected with the Garden Brook line, in the manner referred to above. The distance by this route is
Miles 22.68 Maximum grade
Feet 43.30 Estimate
$319,531.61 Per mile
GENERAL SUMMARY OF ROUTES.
Max. Cost of gra. Total cost of
Length Grade. anıl bridging, grading and
bridging per mi. Cabotville Route,
93.31 21840 00 4 22060.40 End Brook, (Bush's Notch,)
20.85 55 00 18560.00 386958.96 (Ashley's Mill,)
22.26 52.80 13091.00 291440.77 Garden Brook, (N. side Westfield River,) 22 02 15.07 14000.00 308215.50 (S. side
22.20 45 07 15965.00 354133.89 Mill River Route,
22 68 43.30 14089.00 319531.61
The above estimates are for the track adopted by the Board, for the 1st Division, viz. 20 feet in the cuts, and 12
, feet at the surface of the embankments.
We shall in the comparisons reduce the number of routes to four, by taking the main, or north branch of the Garden Brook line, and the south, or Ashley's Mill branch of the End Brook line ; these branches being less in their cost than the branches by Bush's Notch, and the South side of Westfield river. We have then to consider the Cabotville route ; End Brook route; Garden Brook route ; and the Mill River route; and may thus recapitulate the advantages, and disadvantages of each.
1. The Cabotville line.
Its advantages are that it is the straightest, and consequently shortest, of all the routes, viz. 2.94 miles shorter than the End Brook_2.70 shorter than the Garden Brook, and 3.36 shorter than that by Mill River. It passes near the Ludlow Factories, near the Chickopee Factories, and through the village of Cabotville. Its disadvantages are that it has steeper grades than either of the other routes, that it has two summits between the Connecticut river, and Tekoa mountain, requiring three descending grades to the West, amounting to 127 feet, and that the cost of grading it, will be greater than upon either of the other routes.
2. The End Brook route by Ashley's Mill.
Its advantages are, that it passes through the village of West Springfield and Westfield—it crosses the river by a bridge 230 feet shorter, than that by either of the other
routes—the cost of grading is also less.
Its disadvantages are, that it has steeper grades than any except the Cabotville, is more crooked from the plain to the river, than either of the others, and passes about midway between Cabotville and Springfield, avoiding both places.
3. The Garden Brook route.
In point of directness is second only to the Cabotville line; and with the exception of the Mill River line (which in its maximum grade is 1.77 less steep) has easier grades than the others; passes through the villages of Springfield, West Springfield, and Westfield ; and with the exception of the End Brook route, can be graded for less than either of the others.
4. The Mill River route.
The grades of this line are better than either of the others, not only in having its greatest inclination less than that of the others, but in the general descent towards the river from the plain. Mill River being much longer than either Garden Brook, or End Brook, presents by its valley, greater facility in descending. It also passes through the three Villages enumerated in the Garden Brook line. Its disadvantages are, that it requires frequent bridging over the Mill River—is the most crooked—passes through very valuable property in nearly the whole of its extent through the village of Springfield—the cost of grading and bridging is greater than upon any except the Cabotville line; and the land damages upon that part of the line which lies within the thickly settled part of the village of Springfield, of upwards of 14 miles in extent, would be excessive.
From the foregoing statements, the relative merits of the several routes may be understood. In the End Brook route, notwithstanding the cost of grading may be $16,000 less than the Garden Brook route; yet we consider that its steeper grades, increased curvature, and its remoteness from the two business points on the river, (Cabotville and Springfield,) more than counterbalance the advantage which it possesses in respect of cost. The Mill River line