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(B.)--Opposite page xcv.

Summary of the Exports from the United States for five years, from Mr. Blodget's Statistical Views; see also his Treatise entitled "Economica," published at Washington in 1806.

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of the articles imported in addition to the cost: on the other hand, all their exports of foreign or domestic produce are carried to every part of the globe in their own ships, and consequently the freight paid to the Americans, being added to the first cost or export price of the articles at the time of shipment by the countries to which they carry them respectively, it will not be difficult to prove their carrying trade alone, forms the balance of their trade, and which may be estimated at four millions sterling per annum, on the average of the four years taken in this calculation from Mr. Galatin's Official return, or upon 1,041,306 tons, which, in the following year, namely 1805, was increased to 1,443,453 tons.+

The intercourse between the United States and Europe for the last three years has become much more connected, owing to the almost entire cessation of the direct trade between the mother-countries in Europe and their respective colonies, and from this circumstance agents have been sent from all the commercial establishments in the principal sea-ports of Holland, France, and Spain, to the United States, who have extensive authorities granted to them to advance money on cargoes of colonial produce shipped to their respective establishments in Europe, on consignments for sale, on account of the American proprietors. There is another source from whence has arisen very large consignments of American and colonial produce, and of East India goods in American bottoms to Europe, namely, in the trade from the United States to Vera Cruz. In this trade there are employed a great number of American ships who take in return, for their cargoes to Vera Cruz,specie to a very great extent. It is not necessary for the purpose of these observations to attempt to show, whether the specie so exported from Vera Cruz to the United States is the property of individuals, or of the Spanish or French governments, it is sufficient to state there is every reason to believe that the same principally remains in the United States, and for which produce is chiefly shipped and consigned to Antwerp, and which, in a great measure, accounts for the very great capital now employed by the citizens of the United States in their trade to the East Indies and China.

See opposite statement B, for a correct account of the exports of the United States for the last five years.

↑ Appendix to Sir F. M, Eden on Maritime Rights.

It has also been observed, that the neutrality of the United States, has been the means of circulating to a large amount articles of the produce and manufacture of this country in the dominions of the enemy, to which we have no direct access but the evidence given on this point is very imperfect. It appears from this examination of the conduét of Great Britain, that British manufactured goods are annually re-exported to a considerable amount from the United States in American bottoms, and that their principal destina-" tion is to the colonies of the enemy in the West Indies and South America: but, though we have no direct access to the enemies' colonies, we have, by means of our free ports in the West Indies, and if this trade was not carried on by the subjects of the United States, it would be by the subjects of Great Britain, viâ these free ports, with this additional bene- ' fit and national advantage of being carried there in British bottoms. Another fact, which does not appear to have been noticed in this work is, that America annually imports from the countries of the enemy in Europe manufactures and other merchandize in value of about 7,300,000, the greatest proportion of which are so imported for the use of the enemies' colonies, and thus by their agency they not only circu late generally the enemy's manufactures, but circulate them where British manufactures would otherwise have gone. “Of the 10,000,000+, said to be imported into the United States from this country, the greatest part is for re-exportation, and would have found its way to the same market, if they had not been sent through America. It is therefore obvious that these shipments do not benefit Great Britain in any national point of view, though they certainly enrich a few individuals and the subjects of the United States and them only; for the outward cargo is shipped in their own vessels to those colonies, from whence they carry to the United States the return cargo of produce with all the profits thereon: the agents of the foreign establishments in Europe then advanced funds to the American owner, in order to have the consignment and sale in Europe, which enables him immediately to recommence a new voyage on the same principle. It surely cannot with any propriety or truth be said that Great Britain derives any advantage from this carrying trade of the United State, unless the sale of a few manufactures, which may be +Ibid. 138. el *

Mr. Baring's Examination, p. 139.

taken in addition to the regular American consumption, be considered an, adequate compensation for the alarming decline of British shipping and the diminution of our exports to our own colonies; whilst it is clear the trade carried on formerly by British subjects from the free ports in the West Indies has much decreased, with a proportionate depression on other important interests of the country.

This statement is not made with any personal or offensive view, but only to shew the public that the United States ought not to expect to carry on this sort of trade entirely to their own advantage, without making Great Britain a party, either by treaty, or by the adoption of such reciprocal regulations, as will conduce to that end. Had the rule of the war of 1756 been enforced, there would not have been such an enormous increase of American tonnage, and now a cry is raised in favour of that principle, because the late orders in council do not go far enough! Had France possessed the same naval superiority as Great Britain, there is no doubt but the American carrying trade would have been long before this time greatly reduced and brought within its true and legitimate limits. It is therefore melancholy to confess, that Great Britain has supplied the United States with the capital by which they have been thus enriched. Our navy has been to them a shield against the insults of France and Spain; yet endeavours are now made to induce this country to submit to such regulations as the persons holding the power of the government of the United States shall dictate, even as to the manner by which our naval power is to be supported and used.

This it is trusted will never be submitted to. The right of search is to Great Britain an invaluable security in time of war; it has been maintained by every able statesman, and invariably acted upon in the brightest periods of the history of Great Britain; and to take our seamen wherever we find them in the employment of neutrals, must be considered as essentially requisite to the maintenance of our naval power*. Concede these important points, and this country will not only find the American tonnage still continue to increase, but in a very short period British shipping more rapidly decline than hitherto and perhaps in a very few years totally annihilated.

* See Sir F. M. Eden on Maritime Rights.


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