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they have so severely felt, from the temporary and impolitic expedients resorted to by the government of Great Britain, in the regulation of the trade and intercourse between the King's dominions and the United States of America.
The other productions of Canada are, wheat, peas, beans, barley, oats, and potatoes*. The timber consists of oak, firs, pitch pine, ash, elm, beech, birch, and maple. They likewise trade in furs, feathers, fish oil, salt provisions, and many other articles; but more extensive information on this subject may be obtained by reference to the exports and imports of the provinces, and to the memorials and other documents transmitted by the colonists to government, some of which are printed in the Appendix to this volume, as it is probable, discussions may arise on these subjects before the existing differences with the United States are finally adjusted. The facts disclosed in these papers cannot fail to interest the feelings of the English nation; and it is to be hoped, the present administration will realise the expectations which have been formed of their intention to carry into effect the measures contemplated by Mr. PITT, for the relief of these provinces and of the West India and Shipping interests, namely, by the resumption "of those MARITIME "RIGHTS which our forefathers fought and bled to establish, " and to maintain which Great Britain, even within our own "remembrance, while at war with all the great maritime powers of Europe, who then disputed with her the SOVE56 REIGNTY OF THE SEAS, attacked and crushed the northern "confederacyt."
It has long been an object of the government of this country, to promote and encourage the cultivation of hemp and flax in the British colonies in America; and for that purpose bounties have been given, and various means‡ adopted to attain an object of such importance, as that of raising, within the British Empire, these two valuable materials; and
* Appendix, No. 8. It is likewise stated, that iron ore and copper ore have been discovered and found in great abundance, in many parts of these two provinces." Remarks on the Conduct of Russia and France," p. 101.
† Concessions to America, &c. p. 23.
Transactions of the Society of Arts, &c. vol. 21, &c. By the 24th Hen. 8. c. 6, it was enacted that "Every person having in his occupation threescore acres of land apt for tillage, should sow one rood with flax or hemp seed, on pain to forfeit 3 s. 4 d. for every forty acres. An acre to be counted 160 perches, and every perch 16 foot and a half." See also,21 Hen. 8. c. 12., on the culture of hemp at Bridport
there can be no doubt, that if measures are now adopted to secure the home market to the growers of them for a reasonable period, such extended cultivation and improved management will take place as will render Great Britain in a very few years independent of foreign countries for these raw materials of her manufactures*.
Early in the present reign the attention of the legislature was again directed to this subject, and by the 4th Geo. 3.c.26. which states," that the encouragement of hemp and rough "and undressed flax from his Majesty's colonies and plan"tations in America, would be the means of furnishing this "kingdom with sail cloth and cordage (so essentially neces66 sary for the supply of his Majesty's royal navy, as well as "for ships in the merchants' service), and tend to make the "supply of such materials cheaper and less precarious;" it was enacted, that from and after the 24th June, 1764, until the 24th June, 1788, certain bounties should be paid on the importation of hemp, water rotted, bright and clean, or any rougher and undressed flax into GREAT BRITAIN from the British colonies in America, in ships navigated according to law, and the same was continued by the 26th Geo. 3. c. 53. s. 12. to the 24th June, 1806, and from thence by the 46th Geo. 3. c. 29. s. 4. to the 25th March, 1808.
Within the last two years proper persons have been appointed by government to superintend and aid the exertions of the colonists who might be induced to cultivate this article in Canada; but the encouragement hitherto afforded has not been considered adequate, or likely to induce the generality of landholders to engage extensively in the cultivation of hemp. It has unfortunately happened that of the hemp seed and the manufacture of cordage there. These two acts were continued by the 33d Hen. 8. c. 17 for a limited period; and by the 2d sect. of this act, it was enacted that hemp or flax should not be watered in any river, stream, or pond, where beasts were used to be watered, but only in the grounds or pits for the same ordained, on pain of forfeiture as therein mentioned. These two acts having expired, the 24th Hen. 8. c. 6. was revived and altered, by the 5th Eliz. c. 5. 8. 29. which enacted, that instead of one rood, as therein mentioned, one whole acre or less, as by proclamation should be limited, should be sown with linseed, otherwise flax seed, or hemp; but these statutes were afterwards repealed by the 35th Eliz. c. 7. s. 21. The other acts on this subject are the 15th Chas. 2. c. 15.-2d W. and M. sess. 2. c. 4. S. 31, 32-4th W. and M. c. 3.-7th and 8th W. 3. c. 39.-11th and 12th .3. c. 16.-1st Ann. stat. 2. c. 8.-Ibid. c. 18.-3d and 4th Ann. c. Io.-8th Geo. 1. c. 12.-4th Geo. 2. c. 27-22d Geo. 2. c. 7, and those mentioned in the text.
*Sir F, M Eden, on Maritime Rights.
sent out to this colony, a considerable part turned out to be kiln dried. The soil for hemp should be rich, deep, light, and moderately dry. Of this description much can be found on the banks of the creeks and rivers in Canada*. Upper Canada, from the nature of its soil and climate, has been thought to be peculiarly well adapted to the cultivation of hemp, and some good samples have been produced and brought from thence. Whether it will ever become an article of general cultivation in this province is dubious + from the high price of labour, and the loss it is supposed a farmer would sustain by the culture of hemp instead of wheat and other grain. This apprehension, however, does not apply to New Brunswick or Nova Scotia, where the lands are equally good, and calculated for the cultivation of this valuable article, and where it appears experiments have been made with success and profit.
"Estimate of the produce and expence of an acre of land cultivated with hemp in Nova Scotia. PRODUCE.
Ten hundred weight, at 35s. per cwt.
First ploughing, 7s. 6d. second and third, 8s.
Two bushels of seeds, at 12s.
Sowing, covering seed, and water furrowing
Drying and bundling, two days
Watering, grassing, drying, and housing
Clear profit per acre
In this calculation abundance of labour is allowed, and large prices for it, particularly for the dressing, which is the heaviest expence. In the winter season, labourers might be paid and fed for half the wages allowed, and would soon, it is thought, do more work. Yet after deducting all expences
*Wissett on the Cultivation and Preparation of Hemp.
and the rent of the land, there is, in this instance, a clear. profit, exceeding the whole produce of an acre of the best wheat*."
In Lower Canada flax is raised, of which the inhabitants make coarse sheeting and sacking, and some seed is annually exported from thence to Great Britain and Ireland. Under the present circumstances of Europe, it appears not improbable that the cultivation of this plant may be successfully extended in the British colonies, not with a view to manufactures there, which certainly would not answer, but to supply Ireland with flax-seed for her manufactures. It is unnecessary to enlarge on the national advantages which will result from producing within the king's dominions hemp and flax, to such an extent as would nearly supply the whole demand of those articles for naval stores and manufactures, and also corn † and other grain, with timber sufficient for the general consumption of the empire; for though there may be a scarcity of oak timber in Great Britain, the oak of the colonies is little inferior to it, and is equal to foreign oak; besides there are many other species of timber which might be substituted in shipbuilding, and can be obtained in several of the other dependencies. It is, therefore, an object of importance to consider how these resources, which it is reasonable to conclude the British empire possesses within itself, are to be called forth with the speediest and greatest possible advantage to the state; consequently it becomes a fit subject for immediate consideration and inquiry; which it is to be regretted cannot be pursued with effect, whilst his Majesty's ministers are so systematically opposed in all their measures.
-As the SEA
YOUR EMPIRE OWNS 1, and from a thousand shores
So with superior boon may your rich soil,
Exuberant, nature's blessings pour
O'er every land, the naked nations clothe,
Annals of Agriculture.
† See Dr. Johnson's thoughts on agriculture, wherein he says, "when Britain was subject to the Romans, she annually supplied them with great quantities of corn." The authority on which this fact is stated is most probably from Strabo. For a very interesting account of the Exports and Imports and Shipping of Great Britain from A. A. C. 55, to A. D. 449. see Henry's History of England, wol. 2. p. 195.
See Waller's panegyric on Cromwell, 4to. p. 180, &c. and most of the other English poets, for many brilliant and happy allusions to the maritime preponderancy of Great Britain.
NOVA SCOTIA.-This province was originally granted to Sir William Alexander, in 1621, and in 1784, it was divided Bruns into two states, namely, NOVA SCOTIA and NEW BRUNSWICK. wick. Their situation is more advantageous to Great Britain than any other on the continent of North America; not only from their connexion with Canada, the adjacent British islands and the fisheries, and from their nearer proximity to the mother country, than the other dependencies, but also from the superior excellence and number of their harbours, creeks and inlets, and the facility with which they can supply the British West India islands with the various kinds of lumber, boards, scantling, staves and shingles, live stock, such as horses, oxen, sheep and hogs; pickled and dried fish, and salt provisions, namely, beef, pork, and butter; which articles, were the navigation laws enforced, could be had from thence in British bottoms, and delivered in the British West India islands at as cheap rates as they are now furnished in American vessels from the United States, and with greater certainty and regularity, instead of the precarious supplies they now receive from thence. It is well known the Americans will not supply the British islands, if there is the least chance of an advanced price to be had for such articles in the foreign islands, the Mediterranean, or elsewhere; the consequence of which is, that our islands are frequently experiencing inconvenience from scarcity, whilst at other times their markets are glutted; and thus it is, the English merchants are driven out of the colonial supply trade, from its uncertainty and great fluctuation.
The situation of NOVA SCOTIA is highly important to Great Britain, as a maritime power, for the excellent opportunities it affords for the accommodation of the navy, lying considerably to the eastward of the United States, and affording shelter and protection on every side, by means of its numerous harbours, which are well adapted for ship-building, the fisheries, and the timber trade, from the peculiar advantage of being accessible at all seasons of the year.
The woods of these provinces abound with all the various kinds of timber to be found in New England. The pine forests are not only valuable for furnishing masts, spars, all kinds of lumber, oak staves excepted, and ship timber, but likewise may be made to produce occasional supplies of tar, pitch and turpentine. The various species of birch, beech, elm, maple and spruce, are found in all parts in great abundance.
These two provinces, likewise, produce considerable crops