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other party, and be taken by the other party, it is hereby declared to be lawful for the said party to treat and punish the said subject or citizen, having such commission or letters of marque, as a pirate.
It is expressly stipulated that neither of the said contracting parties will order or authorize any acts of reprisal against the other, on complaints of injuries or damages, until the said party shall first have presented to the other a statement thereof, verified by competent proof and evidence, and demanded justice and satisfaction, and the same shall either have been refused or unreasonably delayed.
The ships of war of each of the contracting parties shall, at all times, be hospitably received in the ports of the other, the officers and crews paying due respect to the laws and government of the country. The officers shall be treated with that respect which is due to the commissions which they bear; and if any insult should be offered to them by any of the inhabitants, all offenders in this respect shall be punished as disturbers of the peace and amity between the two countries. And his majesty consents, that in case an American vessel should by stress of weather, danger from enemies, or other misfortunes, be reduced to the necessity of seeking shelter in any of his majesty's ports, into which such vessel could not in ordinary cases claim to be admitted, she shall, on manifesting that necessity to the satisfaction of the government of the place, be hospitably received and permitted to refit, and to purchase at the market price such necessaries as she may stand in need of, conformably to such orders and regulations as the government of the place, having respect to circumstances of each case, shall prescribe. She shall not be allowed to break bulk or unload her cargo, unless the same shall be bona fide necessary to her being refitted; nor shall she be permitted to sell any part of her cargo, unless so much only as may be necessary to defray her expences, and then not without the express permission of the government of the place; nor shall she be obliged to pay any duties whatever, except only on such articles as she may be permitted to sell for the purpose aforesaid.
It shall not be lawful for any foreign privateers (not being subjects or citizens of either of the said parties) who have commissions from any other prince or state in enmity with either nation, to arm their ships in the ports of either of the said parties, nor to sell what they have taken, nor in any other manner to exchange the same; nor shall they be allowed to purchase more provisions than shall be necessary for their going to the nearest port of that prince or state from whom they obtained their commissions.
It shall be lawful for the ships of war and privateers, belonging to the said parties respectively, to carry whithersoever they please the
ships and goods taken from their enemies, without being obliged to pay any fee to the officers of the admiralty, or to any judges whatever; nor shall the said prizes, when they arrive at and enter the ports of the said parties, be detained or seized, neither shall the searchers or other officers of those places visit such prizes (except for the purpose of preventing the carrying of any part of the cargo thereof on shore, in any manner contrary to the established laws of revenue, navigation, or commerce,) nor shall such officers take cognizance of the validity of such prizes; but they shall be at liberty to hoist sail, and depart as speedily as may be, and carry their said prizes to the place mentioned in their commissions or patents, which the commanders of the said ships of war or privateers shall be obliged to shew.
No shelter or refuge shall be given in their ports to such as have made a prize upon the subjects or citizens of either of the said parties; but if forced by stress of weather or the dangers of the sea to enter therein, particular care shall be taken to hasten their departure, and to cause them to retire as soon as possible. Nothing in this treaty contained shall, however, be construed to operate contrary to the former and existing public treaties with other sovereigns or states: but the two parties agree, that while they continue in amity, neither of them will in future make any treaty that shall be inconsistent with this or the preceding article.
Neither of the said parties shall permit the ships or goods belonging to the subjects or citizens of the other to be taken within cannon shot of the coast, nor in any of the bays, ports, or rivers of their territories, by ships of war, or others having commission from any prince, republic, or state whatever. But in case it should so happen, the party whose territorial rights shall thus have been violated shall use his utmost endeavours to obtain from the offending party full and ample satisfaction for the vessel or vessels so taken, whether the same be vessels of war or merchant vessels.
If at any time a rupture should take place (which God forbid) between his majesty and the United States, the merchants and others of each of the two nations residing in the dominions of the other, shall have the privilege of remaining and continuing their trade so long as they behave peaceably, and commit no offence against the laws; and in case their conduct should render them suspected, and the respective governments should think proper to order them to remove, the term of twelve months, from the publication of the order, shall be allowed them for that purpose, to remove with their families, effects and property; but this favour shall not be extended to those who shall act contrary to the established laws: and for greater certainty it is declared, that such rupture shall not be deemed to exist while negociations for accommodating differences shall be depending, nor until the respective ambassadors or ministers, if such there shall be, shall be recalled or sent home on account of such differences, and not on account of personal misconduct, according to the nature and degrees of which both parties retain their rights, either to request the recall, or immediately to send home the ambassador or minister
of the other; and that without prejudice to their mutual friendship and good understanding.
It is further agreed, That his majesty and the United States, on mutual requisitions by them respectively, or by their respective ministers, or officers authorized to make the same, will deliver up to justice all persons, who being charged with murder or forgery, committed within the jurisdiction of either, shall seek an asylum within any of the countries of the other, provided that this shall only be done on such evidence of criminality, as, according to the laws of the place where the fugitive or person so charged shall be found, would justify his apprehension and commitment for trial, if the offence had there been committed. The expence of such apprehension and delivery shall be borne and defrayed by those who make the requisition and receive the fugitive.
It is agreed that the first ten articles of this treaty shall be permanent, and that the subsequent articles, except the twelfth, shall be limited in their duration to twelve years, to be computed from the day on which the ratifications of this treaty shall be exchanged, but subject to this condition :-That whereas the said twelfth article will expire, by the limitation therein contained, at the end of two years from the signing the preliminary or other articles of peace which shall terminate the present war in which his majesty is engaged; it is agreed, that proper measures shall by concert be taken for bringing the subject of that article into amicable treaty and discussion, so early before the expiration of the said term, as that new arrangements on that head may by that time be perfected, and ready to take place. But if it should unfortunately happen, that his majesty and the United States should not be able to agree on such new arrangements, in that case all the articles of this treaty, except the first ten, shall then cease and expire together.
Lastly, This treaty, when the same shall have been ratified by his majesty, and by the president of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of their senate, and the respective ratifications mutually exchanged, shall be binding and obligatory on his majesty, and on the said States, and shall be by them respectively executed and observed with punctuality, and the most sincere regard to good faith. And whereas it will be expedient, in order the better to facilitate intercourse and obviate difficulties, that other articles be proposed and added to this treaty, which articles, from want of time and other circumstances, cannot now be perfected, it is agreed, that the said parties will, from time to time, readily treat of and concerning such articles, and will sincerely endeavour so to form them, as that they may conduce to mutual convenience, and tend to promote mutual satisfaction and friendship; and that the said articles, after having been duly ratified, shall be added to, and make part of this treaty.
In faith whereof, We, the undersigned ministers plenipotentiary of his majesty the king of Great Britain and the United States of America,
have signed this present treaty, and have caused to be affixed thereto the seal of our arms.
Done at London, this nineteenth day of November, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-four,
Philadelphia, Sept. 5, 1793.
Mine of the 7th of that
I AM honoured with yours of August 30. month assured you, that measures were taken for excluding from all further asylum in our ports vessels armed in them to cruize on nations with which we are at peace, and for the restoration of the prizes, the Lovely Lass, Prince William Henry, and the Jane, of Dublin; and that should the measures for restitution fail in their effect, the president considered it as incumbent on the United States to make compensation for the vessels.
We are bound by our treaties with three of the belligerent nations, by all the means in our power, to protect and defend their vessels and effects in our ports or waters, or on the seas near our shores, and to recover and restore the same to the right owners when taken from them. If all the means in our power are used, and fail in their effect, we are not bound by our treaties with those nations to make compensation.
Though we have no similar treaty with Great Britain, it was the opinion of the president, that we should use towards that nation the same rule, which, under this article, was to govern us with the other nations; and even to extend it to captures made on the high seas, and brought into our ports, if done by vessels which had been armed within them.
Having, for particular reasons, forbore to use all the means in our power for the restitution of the three vessels mentioned in my letter of August 7th, the president thought it incumbent on the United States to make compensation for them. And though nothing was said in that letter of other vessels taken under like circumstances, and brought in after the 5th of June, and before the date of that letter, yet, when the same forbearance had taken place, it was and is his opinion, that compensation would be equally due.
As to prizes made under the same circumstances, and brought in after the date of that letter, the president determined, that all the means in our power should be used for their restitution. If these fail, as we should not be bound by our treaties to make compensation to the other powers in the analogous case, he did not mean to give an opinion that it ought to be done to Great Britain. But still, if any case shall arise subsequent to that date, the circumstances of which shall place them on similar ground with those before it, the president would think compensation equally incumbent on the United States.
Instructions are given to the governors of the different states, to use all the means in their power for restoring prizes of this last de scription found within their ports; though they will of course take measures to be informed of them, and the general government has
given them the aid of the custom house officers for this purpose, yet you will be sensible of the importance of multiplying the channels of their information, as far as shall depend on yourself, or any person under your direction, in order that the governors may use the means in their power for making restitution.
Without knowledge of the capture they cannot restore it. It would always be best to give the notice to them directly; but any information which you shall be pleased to send to me also at any time shall be forwarded to them as quickly as distance will permit.
Hence you will perceive, sir, that the president contemplates restitution or compensation in the cases before the 7th of August; and after that date, restitution, if it can be effected by any means in our power and that it will be important that you should substantiate the fact, that such prizes are in our ports or waters.
Your list of the privateers illicitly armed in our ports is, I believe,
With respect to losses by detention, waste, or spoliation, sustained by vessels taken as before-mentioned, between the dates of June 5th and August 7th, it is proposed, as a provisional measure, that the collector of the customs of the district, and the British consul, or any other person you please, shall appoint persons to establish the value of the vessel and cargo at the time of her capture, and of her arrival in the port into which she is brought, according to their value in that port. If this shall be agreeable to you, and you will be pleased to signify it to me, with the names of the prizes understood to be of this description, instructions will be given accordingly to the collectors of the customs where the respective vessels are.
IT is further agreed between the said contracting parties, that the operation of so much of the twelfth article of the said treaty as respects the trade, which his said majesty thereby consents may be carried on between the United States and his islands in the West Indies, in the manner and on the terms and conditions therein specified, shall be suspended.
WE therefore, by virtue of these presents, do approve and ratify the said treaty, together with the said additional article, as the same are respectively set forth in this instrument of ratification; promising and engaging our royal word, that we will faithfully and religiously perform and observe all and singular the things agreed upon in this treaty, and that we will not suffer the same to be violated by any one, as far as lies in our power. For the greater testimony and validity whereof, we have caused our great seal to be affixed to these presents, which we have signed with our royal hand.
Given at our court at St. James's, the twenty-eighth day of October, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-five, in the thirty-sixth year of our reign.