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treaties, convention or conventions, or other instruments whatsoever, as may be agreed upon in the premises, and mutually to deliver and receive the same in exchange; and to do and perform all such other acts, matters and things, as may be any-ways proper and conducive to the purposes above mentioned, in as full and ample form and manner, and with the like validity and effect, as we ourself, if we were present, could do and perform the same: engaging and promising, on our royal word, that we will accept, ratify and confirm, in the most effectual manner, all such acts, matters and things, as shall be so transacted and concluded by our aforesaid commissioner, procurator and plenipotentiary; and that we will never suffer any person to violate the same, in the whole or in part, or to act contrary thereto. In testimony and confirmation of all which, we have caused our great seal of Great Britain to be affixed to these presents, signed with our royal hand. Given at our palace at St. James's, the fourteenth day of May, in the year of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three, and in the twenty-third year of our reign.
Full Power of the United States of America.
THE United States of America, in congress assembled, to all to whom these presents shall come, greeting: Whereas these United States, from a sincere desire of putting an end to the hostilities between his most Christian majesty and these United States on the one part, and his Britannick majesty on the other, and of terminating the same by a peace, founded on such solid and equitable principles as reasonably to promise a permanence of the blessings of tranquillity, did heretofore appoint the honourable John Adams, late a commissioner of the United States of America at the court of Versailles, late delegate in congress from the state of Massachusets, and chief justice of the said state, their minister plenipotentiary, with full powers, general and special, to act in that quality, to confer, treat, agree, and conclude with the ambassadors or plenipotentiaries of his most Christian majesty, and of his Britannick majesty, and those of any other princes or states whom it might concern, relating to the re-establishment of peace and friendship; and whereas the flames of war have since that time been extended, and other nations and states involved therein: Now know ye, that we still continue earnestly desirous, as far as depends upon us, to put a stop to the effusion of blood; and to convince the powers of Europe that we wish for nothing more ardently than to terminate the war by a safe and honourable peace, have thought proper to renew the powers formerly given to the said John Adams, and to join four other persons in commission with him; and having full confidence in the integrity, prudence and ability of the honourable Benjamin Franklin, our minister plenipotentairy at the court of Versailles, and the honorable John Jay, late president of congress, and chief justice of the state of New York, and our minister plenipotentiary at the court of Madrid; and the honourable Henry Laurens, formerly president of congress, and commissionated and sent as our agent to the United Provinces of the Low Countries; and the honourable Thomas
Jefferson, governor of the commonwealth of Virginia; have nominated, constituted, and appointed, and by these presents do nominate, constitute, and appoint, the said Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, Henry Laurens, and Thomas Jefferson, in addition to the said John Adams, giving and granting to them the said John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, Henry Laurens, and Thomas Jefferson, or the majority of them, or of such of them as may assemble; or, in case of the death, absence, indisposition, or other impediment of the others, to any one of them full power and authority, general and special, conjunctly and separately, and general and special command, to repair to such place as may be fixed upon for opening negociations for peace; and there for us, and in our name, to confer, treat, agree, and conclude with the ambassadors, commissioners and plenipotentiaries of the princes and states whom it may concern, vested with equal powers, relating to the establishment of peace; and whatsoever shall be agreed and concluded, for us and in our name, to sign, and thereupon make a treaty or treaties; and to transact every thing that may be necessary for completing, securing and strengthening the great work of pacification, in as ample form, and with the same effect, as if we were personally present, and acted therein; hereby promising, in good faith, that we will accept, ratify, fulfil, and execute whatever shall be agreed, concluded, and signed by our said ministers plenipotentiary, or a majority of them, or of such of them as may assemble; or, in case of the death, absence, indisposition, or other impediment of the others, by any one of them; and that we will never act, nor suffer any person to act, contrary to the same, in whole, or in any part. In witness whereof we have caused these presents to be signed by our president, and
sealed with his seal.
Done at Philadelphia, the fifteenth day of June, in the year of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-one, and in the fifth year of our independence, by the United States in congress assembled.
CHARLES THOMPSON, Secretary.
SAM. HUNTINGTON, President.
TREATY of AMITY, COMMERCE and NAVIGA-
His Majesty's Ratification.
GEORGE the third, by the Grace of God, King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Duke of Brunswick and Lunenburgh, arch-treasurer and prince elector of the holy Roman empire, &c. To all and singular to whom these presents shall come, greeting: Whereas our right trusty and well-beloved counsellor, William Wyndham, baron Grenville of Wotton, our principal secretary of state for foreign affairs, &c. &c. did, on our part, together with the plenipotentiary of our good friends the United States of America, conclude and sign at London, on the nineteenth day of November, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-four, a treaty of amity, commerce and navigation between us and our said good friends: and whereas a certain additional article has, on the part of the said United States, been proposed to be annexed to the said treaty as a part thereof; to which addition we are willing to consent; the said treaty and additional article being in the words following:
HIS Britannick majesty and the United States of America, being desirous, by a treaty of amity, commerce and navigation, to terminate their differences in such a manner as, without reference to the merits of their respective complaints and pretensions, may be the best calculated to produce mutual satisfaction and good understanding; and also to regulate the commerce and navigation between their respective countries, territories and people, in such a manner as to render the same reciprocally beneficial and satisfactory; they have, respectively, named their plenipotentiaries, and given them full powers to treat of and conclude the said treaty; that is to say, his Britannick majesty has named, for his plenipotentiary, the right honourable William Wyndham, baron Grenville of Wotton, one of his majesty's privy council, and his majesty's principal secretary of state for foreign affairs, and the president of the said United States, by and with the advice and consent of the senate thereof, hath appointed for their plenipotentiary the honourable John Jay, chief justice of the said United States, and their envoy extraordinary to his Majesty, who have agreed on and concluded the following articles ;
There shall be a firm, inviolable, and universal peace, and a true and sincere friendship between his Britannick majesty, his heirs and successors, and the United States of America; and between their respective countries, territories, cities, towns, and people, of every degree, without exception of persons or places.
His majesty will withdraw all his troops and garrisons from all posts and places within the boundary lines assigned by the treaty of peace to the United States. This evacuation shall take place on or before the first day of June, 1796, and all the proper measures shall in the interval be taken by concert between the government of the United States and his majesty's governor-general in America, for settling the previous arrangements which may be necessary respecting the delivery of the said posts: the United States, in the mean time, at their discretion, extending their settlements to any part within the said boundary line, except within the precincts or jurisdiction of any of the said posts. All settlers and traders within the precincts or jurisdiction of the said posts shall continue to enjoy, unmolested, all their property of every kind, and shall be protected therein; they shall be at full liberty to remain there, or remove with all or any part of their effects; and it shall also be free to them to sell their lands, houses, or effects, or to retain the property thereof, at their discretion. Such of them as shall continue to reside within the said boundary lines shall not be compelled to become citizens of the United States, or to take any oath of allegiance to the government thereof, but they shall be at full liberty so to do, if they think proper; and they shall make and declare their election within one year after the evacuation aforesaid, And all persons who shall continue there after the expiration of the said year, without having declared their intention of remaining subjects of his Britannick majesty, shall be considered as having elected to become citizens of the United States.
It is agreed, that it shall at all times be free to his majesty's subjects, and to the citizens of the United States, and also to the Indians dwelling on either side of the said boundary line, freely to pass and repass, by land or inland navigation, into the respective territories and countries of the two parties on the continent of America, (the country within the limits of the Hudson's Bay company only excepted) and to navigate all the lakes, rivers and waters thereof, and freely to carry on trade and comrлerce with each other. But it is understood, that this article does not extend to the admission of vessels of the United States into the sea-ports, harbours, bays, or creeks of his majesty's said territories; nor into such parts of the rivers in his majesty's said territories as are between the mouth thereof and the highest port of entry from the sea, except in small vessels trading bona fide between Montreal and Quebec, under such regulations as shall be established to prevent the possibility of any frauds in this respect; nor to the ad
mission of British vessels from the sea into the rivers of the United States, beyond the highest ports of entry for vessels from the sea. The river Mississippi shall, however, according to the treaty of peace, be entirely open to both parties; and it is farther agreed, that all the ports and places on its eastern side, to whichsoever of the parties belonging, may freely be resorted to, and used by both parties, in as ample a manner as any of the Atlantic ports or places of the United States, or any of the ports or places of his majesty in Great Britain. All goods and merchandize, whose importation into his majesty's said territories in America shall not be entirely prohibited, may freely, for the purposes of commerce, be carried into the same, in the manner aforesaid, by the citizens of the United States; and such goods and merchandize shall be subject to no higher or other duties than would be payable by his majesty's subjects on the importation of the same from Europe into the said territories. And, in like manner, all goods and merchandize, whose importation into the United States shall not be wholly prohibited, may freely, for the purpose of commerce, be carried into the same, in the manner aforesaid, by his majesty's subjects; and such goods and merchandize shall be subject to no higher or other duties than would be payable by the citizens of the United States on the importation of the same, in American vessels, into the Atlantic ports of the said States. And all goods not prohibited to be exported from the said territories respectively, may, in like manner, be carried out of the same by the two parties respectively, paying duty as aforesaid.
No duty of entry shall ever be levied, by either party, on peltries brought by land or inland navigation into the said territories respectively; nor shall the Indians, passing or repassing with their own proper goods and effects, of whatever nature, pay for the same any impost or duty whatever; but goods in bales, or other large packages unusual among Indians, shall not be considered as goods, belonging bona fide to Indians.
No higher or other tolls or rates of ferriage than what are or shall be payable by natives, shall be demanded on either side; and no duties shall be payable on any goods which shall merely be carried over any of the portages or carrying-places on either side, for the purpose of being immediately re embarked and carried to some other place or places. But as by this stipulation it is only meant to secure to each party a free passage across the portages on both sides, it is agreed, that this exemption from duty shall extend only to such goods as are carried in the usual and direct road across the portage, and are not attempted to be in any manner sold or exchanged during their passage across the same; and proper regulations may be established to prevent the possibility of any frauds in this respect.
As this article is intended to render, in a great degree, the local advantages of each party common to both, and thereby to promote a disposition favourable to friendship and good neighbourhood, it is agreed, that the respective governments will mutually promote this amicable intercourse, by causing speedy and impartial justice to be done, and necessary protection to be extended to all who may be concerned therein.