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business be taken upon Wednesday Morning next with determination to be given herein.

Pa. 553.

Die Martis 11 Sept. 1660.

Hodie 3a vice lecta est Billa. An Act to enable Robert Lord Lexington and Sr Tho. Williamson Barnt: to raise & levy the sume of 2680 pounds and damages out of the lands and mannours of John Hutchinson Esq.

And the question being putt whether this Bill shall pass into a law. It was resolved in the affirmative.

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The Peterhouse portrait of Colonel Hutchinson is believed by the College to be a genuine portrait of the Governor, though no record of its history can be found. The Master (Sir Adolphus Ward) describes it as follows: "Hair, long and flowing-its colour is very dark brown. or black; eyebrows-black; moustache-very slight; eyes-brown, but there is some difficulty in deciding colours, as the portrait is rather faded; complexionpale; the face is certainly thin; the cheeks are rather heavy, inclining to jowl; lips-red; small mouth, but under lips full in proportion; cuirass covering middle of body; over the left shoulder a sash, blue in colour." The Peterhouse portrait is the only one at present known which appears to have claims to be an authentic likeness. of the Colonel, though if the colour of the eyes has been correctly read, its claim must fail, as the Colonel had eyes "of a lively grey" (Memoirs, page 4). In the Nottingham Castle Museum is a portrait which it is generally recognized cannot be of the Colonel, though it is so described. This portrait was formerly in the

possession of Lord Manvers,' and was included in the exhibition of Civil War portraits arranged by Bishop Trollope at the Nottingham Exchange in 1864. The Nottingham Mercury of August 22nd, 1851, contains a reference to another portrait of the Colonel and his wife, which it may be interesting to quote :

“A remarkably fine old painting, said to be portraits of Colonel Hutchinson with his high-minded and gifted wife and family, is now on view at the Guardian Office for sale. It is a most elaborate and highly-finished picture, and in a splendid preservation. The picture is declared to be by Ovens, who was born at Amsterdam in 1620 and educated in the school of Rembrandt." An advertisement says that the picture "is supposed to have been originally an occupant of Nottingham Castle. This is the only portrait extant of the Hero and Patriot."

In its issue of September 5th, the Mercury gave the following further note on the picture :-"This splendid historical picture has been visited by several of the nobility, the neighbouring gentry, and connoisseurs. By a letter in our possession from Mr. William Fletcher, of whom the present owner obtained it, we learn that it was purchased at Dordt (Dordrecht) near Amsterdam by Mr. Mitchell, a capital judge of pictures, whose account of it was that he had it from a private family, who stated that the picture originally came from England, and was thought to be by Vandyck." The antecedents of the picture do not seem to be beyond suspicion, but it would be interesting if it could be traced.

A portrait, said to be of Mrs. Lucy Hutchinson, now on view in the Nottingham Castle Museum on loan from the East Stoke Hall collection, hardly bears

(1) The Rev. Francis Hutchinson says he has been informed that this picture was bought by Lord Manvers at the sale of Owthorpe, but he considers that it has no claim to be an authentic likeness of the Colonel.

evidence of the style of Sir Peter Lely, to whom it is attributed.

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Bound up with Mrs. Hutchinson's MS. in the British Museum are some rough notes in her handwriting, one of which rather seems to show that she collected all her information of certain episodes before beginning to write. It runs :

"The Governor's message to Plumtre, his words to Dolphin, and working up mutinies in the towne, moreover confessing to the Governor that he came for nothing but to doe him mischiefe, his answer, the determinations of the Committee concerning him and their sending up Lieutenant Colonel with articles against him, Mill: [ington's] carriage, and advice to Lieutenant Colonel and his returne, the return of the Cannoneers with the cause of their imprisonment, the Governor going to London with treacherous flatteries and protestations to him, their hindering him from petitioning against Plumtre, the false dealings and speeches of Captain White against the Governor in his absence, his sending up upon fained pretences to London to work against the Governor, their endeavouring to make a party in his absence against him in the towne, Mr. Sall: [isbury] insulting and domineering over the officers, his sending for Chad. [wick], their petition for Mill [ington], his coming downe and the rest of his carriage."

There is also an extract which reads like a protest of the Colonel's in Restoration days:

"There is a troope of horse now in the towne (and it has often hapned so) that committed greate outrages and insulences, calling divers honest men puritans and rogues, and using other provoking termes and carriages, and I myselfe passing on the roade was cal'd a puritan rodgue by some gentlemen that met me and enquired who I was, who

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hearing my name turned to one another and gave those base terms, as 3 honest men that came behind affirmed to me.”

The commission,' dated 10th April, 1644, issued to Colonel Hutchinson by the Earl of Essex, authorizing him "to Call a Councell of Warre as often as need shall require for the Tryall of the Officers and Souldgers of the Garrison of Nottingham," is now in the Nottingham Castle Museum. This and the commission from Fairfax were formerly in the collection of Mr. James Ward. A list of other Hutchinson documents in the possession of local collectors would be interesting.

EDUCATION IN THE MIDDLE AGES.
By MR. SAMUEL Corner.

It is a popular error, supported by many historians and writers of acknowledged authority, that English schools mostly date from the Reformation, that education in the Middle Ages was confined to the clergy and a select few of the gentry, and that its aim was to prepare the young monk, or cleric, for the church, or the young soldier of birth in the arts of chivalry. But an examination of existing records, whether in the national or local archives, and of other extant documents, shows abundant evidence that education was widely diffused, and extended even to the working classes; that everywhere there were, from very early times, schools open to all; and English literature from the days of Alfred supports this; for instance, many familiar passages in Chaucer, and in the poem known as Piers Plowman clearly show that education was within the reach of rich and poor.

(1) Reproduced in facsimile in the Transactions for 1899.

It is not intended in the present paper to give the history of those grammar schools of the county of Nottingham, of which so admirable an account is given by Mr. A. F. Leach, in the Victoria County History of Nottingham, or of the ancient grammar school, known since 1868 as the Nottingham High School, the history of which has been published in the school magazine, The Forester, but to give some of the evidence for the statement that there were few parishes in which it would have been difficult to find a school or schoolmaster within a short distance.

Professor Thorold Rogers, in his Six Centuries of Work and Wages, combats the idea that a knowledge of reading and writing was confined almost entirely to the ranks of the clergy. He shows the difficulty of accounting for the universal practice of keeping elaborate and exact accounts, if bailiffs, and others who kept them, were wholly illiterate; and, indeed, it is impossible to believe that an official of an estate could carry in his head, or verify by tallies, the exceedingly numerous details which he must have supplied in order to get his assets and liabilities balanced at the end of the year to a farthing. This fact, of which there is evidence in manorial accounts in every county of England, shows that schools must have been attached to the monasteries and other ecclesiastical foundations, and that the extraordinary number of schools founded just after the Reformation were not the result of a new zeal for a new learning, but the fresh and very inadequate supply of that which had been so suddenly and disastrously extinguished. The work just mentioned refers to the records of New College, Oxford, founded in 1379 by William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester, the founder of Winchester School, where are preserved tradesmen's bills presented and paid before the college

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