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fought on the Roundhead side in this war were willing soldiers.

The Memoirs tell us (page 178) that there were disputes between the Governor and the officers of the garrison as to his powers over the horse. From the MS. we learn that the chief grumbler was Captain White :"C.L. 19 had not been at home when the Governor's commission came, and he very much disputed the command of the horse, utterly denying that the Governors of the Parliament garrisons had any such power."

It is worth noting that when the first commission was given to the Governor, the commanders of the horse, according to the MS. but not the Memoirs, "were all to goe out of the towne." This question of the Governor's powers was a very thorny one right up to the end of his command.

In his Annals, Bailey asserted that the whole trend of Mrs. Hutchinson's narrative was to enlarge upon the part played by the Colonel in local affairs at the expense of his contemporaries. There are portions of the MS., which, of course, was unknown to Bailey, that give proof of this. In the Memoirs, Mrs. Hutchinson wrote (page 195), referring to the raising of the siege of Newark by Prince Rupert, that "the Governor of Nottingham kept out spies upon the enemie's motions." The MS. reads that "Sir John Gell and the Committee of Nottingham kept out spies upon all the enemies movements." The Memoirs say (page 191) that the Colonel released the prisoners taken at the Trent Bridge. The MS. says:"The Governor immediately writt to Mr. Millington the relation of the businesse and desired a Commission for the executing of martial lawe and to know of my Lord Generall whether these men that were taken in this disguise should be executed as spies, or released as souldiers," and it is clear from this that the Colonel was

acting on instructions and not on his own initiative in releasing all the prisoners but one. In the Memoirs (page 162) the Colonel is described as attending "the greate church," and "after sermon, from the steeple tooke a view of the fort at the bridges, no one perceiving his designe, but his engineer who was with him." The MS. says that he "took occasion to goe to St. Marie's Church to heare the sermon, and after sermon went up to the steeple with some of the committee."

The Colonel's enemies also suffered at Mrs. Hutchinson's hands. In the Memoirs (page 242) she tells us that, after the taking of Thurgarton Priory, "Sir Roger Cooper was in great dreade to be put into the Governor's yett he received such a civill treatment from him that he seemed to be much mooved and melted with it." This is not in the MS. as it ought to have been as the earlier story.

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Another peculiarity of Mrs. Hutchinson, to which Bailey called attention, was placing upon other persons the responsibility for the failure of the Colonel's plans. Several instances of this occur in the Memoirs, and there is a new passage in the MS. of a similar character, preceding the account of the attack by the Newarkers on Trent Bridge (page 190).

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but there another Councell of Warre was appointed the next day. But before they mett intelligence was brought the Governor that some 15 commanders with packe of mony, pistolls, and bitts for horses were to passe to Newark, being come from Oxford, and that they lay at [blank in MS.] with only one troope of horse, and that

(1) Professor Firth gives an extract from the MS. which makes it clear why Sir Roger Cooper was not anxious to meet the Governor, whom he had challenged to a duel.

Wiverton and Shelford men were to meete and convoy them. Whereupon he marched that night with all the horse and dragoones he could make in the garrison to have interrupted them, and stood in a body in the place appoynted for them to passe, and sent a messenger to know whether they were there or noe, who brought him word they were to come by that night, but till it was day forgot to tell the Governor where he was appoynted to meet the intelligencer who should tell them which way they went, and when he told it so doubtfully betweene two places that the Governor going to one missed the man who was gone to the other, and in the meantime some of the cheifest commanders, with 3 of the best packs, passed by another way. But the Governor was certeinely informed after the same hour that nine captaines with fifty horse, which came from Ashby to convoy them, could not goe back that night, because the waters were out, and that some of the packs were left behind. Whereupon he acquainted the captaine and the committee with his intelligencer, who thereupon were all mighty forward and earnest that the horse should goe out againe that night to surprise them in their quarters. The Governor sent out his men to get dragoone horses and prepared himselfe ready to goe, but when the horse was just drawne forth into the markett place, and the Governor taking horse to goe out, Captain White came up and sayd the horse were exceeding weake and not able for the service, and the men weary, whereupon the designe was then frustrate."

The reference in the Memoirs (page 197) to the troubles with the committee is amplified in the MS. :

"My Lord Generall, the Earle of Essex, sent a letter at the beginning of this businesse to the Comtee to send what force they could against Newark which Salusbury shriving in the Comittee Chamber 'looke you,' sayd he, 'this, I believe, is contrary to the expectations of some. You see who the sending out of forces belongs to.""

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"March the 1st,-Mr. Hooper and Mr. Horne came to the Committee to acquaint them that there wanted bread and cheese for the souldiers. There were present at this demand Mr. Pigott and Alderman James. The Stewards desired that the Treasurer might be called, who when he came and was acquainted with the businesse sayd he knew before that there was none in the garrison, but all command was taken out of the Committee's hands and now nothing was done. When the Committee sent out warrants there neither wanted mony nor provisions, but since the Governor tooke upon him to command all horse, everything was neglected. Mr. Pigot began to speake in the Governor's behalfe, and then Salusbury told him a long story, much detracting from the Governor, as if he assumed more power and command than belonged to him, but sayd he, 'You saw a letter lately and believe contrary to his expectation.' Then Mr. Pigot bid him draw his warrants in the usuall manner, and he would undertake when they were sent to the Governor, he would signe them. Soe for the present Salusbury gave the steward 5 markes to buy provision till Munday, and sayd that the Governor made nothing of them but sellers. Yet he had no power to doe the least thing without them, and for his part he had rather be a Committee man than a Governor."

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During the siege att Newark there being some informations against Mr. Horne, the under steward, the Committee discharged him from his office and put in Mr. Storer, who being unwilling to be under another had the whole charge committed to him."

Much new light is thrown in the MS. on the case of the Cannoneers, which Bailey considered was "a disreputable piece of religious persecution." According to the Memoirs (page 200), the Governor had been forced against his will to make the Cannoneers prisoners by the ministers of the town, aided by "certaine loose mallignant priests." Plumtree behaved most insolently

in demanding their release, which was at first refused and afterwards granted by the Governor, under orders from Fairfax, "to the satisfaction of his own conscience," says the Memoirs. In the MS. many new details are given :

"The cannoneers. Some of the cannoneers being turned separatists, there was greate distaste taken at it in the garrison, whereupon the Governor sent for the Mr. Gunner, Mr. Collins, and one that was employed in the workes call'd Anthony Smith, and having had some dispute with them severally, Smith promised not to seduce nor congregate in the garrison, and Collins sayd he would doe what possible he could to satisfie his conscience, and in the meane time desired only leave for himselfe and his chamber fellowes to be private in their chambers on the Sabboth day, engaging that none else should be with them. But some few Sabboths after, there hapening one Garland, a minister of these opinions, to be in towne, he preached at Mr. Collins his chamber. Many woemen of the towne went thither to heare him, which being told the Governor, he the next Sabboth surprised them at unawares in sermon time, and finding some more than he gave allowance for, committed Collins and Smith. When the force went to Newark, Captaine White desired leave that Smith might goe allong with him, and the Governor condescended to it, and when there was such present expectation of the enemie after our losse at Newark, the Governor, not willing to exasperate those that were of such speciall use to him, was entreated to release Mr. Collins, and thereupon he sett him at liberty."

The MS., as the earlier, and consequently the more complete version of the story, throws up the Colonel's conduct in a more unfavourable light than the Memoirs. It makes clear that if the first complaints came from the ministers, the Colonel himself was very active against the Cannoneers, and Smith and Collins were released

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