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CLIMATURE.-P. 19. " In a track of such considerable extent, with a surface and a soil so various, there must be some diversity of climate; but in almost every part of Berkshire, the air is pure and salubrious, and this is more particularly the case on the chalky and gravelly soils which prevail through the greatest part of its limits.

WATERS.-P. 36. "The principal rivers and streams of Berkshire are the Thames, the Kennet, the Loddon, the Lambourn, the Ock, the Aubourn, the Emme, and the Broadwater."

DISTRICTS. (Section." Divisions.")-P. 16. "The four grand natural divisions of Berkshire are :—

"1. The Vale, beginning at Buscot and terminating at Streatley. It is bounded by the Thames on one side, and by,"→

"2. The Chalky Hills, which run nearly through the centre of the lower part of the county."

"3. The Vale of the Kennet."

"4. The Forest Division, which commences on the east of the Loddon, and extends the breadth of the county to Old Windsor."

SOILS. Of the Vale Lands.-(Section "Soil and Surface.")-P. 22. "The prevailing soil of the Vale is a strong grey calcareous loam, which evidently owes it excellence to the intimate mixture of vegetable mould with cretaceous earth.' In fact, a considerable portion of it is alluvial land; and its fertility differs according to the various proportions of the component materials."

"The downs are chiefly

Of the Chalk Hills.-P. 25. composed of a blackish light earth.

"On the south side, these hills throughout their whole extent gradually descend to the vale of the Kennet, and contain some intermediate tracks of considerable fertility, of flint, chalk, loam, and gravel, with occasional beds of clay, but almost wholly with a chalky substratum."

Of the Valley of the Kennet.-P. 27. "In the soil of the vale of the Kennet gravels predominate, but they vary considerably in their qualities, admixtures, and depths from the surface. On the north side of the river the soil is generally a reddish loam, with a gravelly substratum, easily tilled, and, with proper management, not much inferior in the produce of some kinds of grain to the vale of White Horse. On the south side of the Kennet, between Hungerford and Newbury, the soil is of gravel, loam, and clay near the river; but towards Inkpen, Shalbourn, and West Woodhay, we come to a track of deep, white maumy land, well adapted for the growth of wheat, beans, and oak timber."-Doubtlessly, the base of the Chalk Hills of Hamp

shire, which there breaks out.-Other remarks on the same peculiar species of soil will appear in the course of this volume.

Of the Forest District.-P. 29. "The more northern parts of this division, towards Maidenhead, Bray, and Clewer, is gravel, strong loam, and clay; in the central parts, about Old and New Windsor, Winkfield, and Warfield, a tenacious clay prevails; and in the southern parts of the forest, sand and gravel. In many spots, however, within these limits, I found a good kind loam, in others a stiff loam mixed with clay."

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FOSSILS.-P. 32. "Berkshire possesses no minerals of considerable value, nor any uncommon variety of curious fossils. The chalk hills in general contain nothing very remarkable, as far as excavations have been made. The substance in general is too much mixed with heterogeneous matter to be applied to any useful purpose; but it is nevertheless found sufficiently pure in some places, particularly in the eastern direction of the stratum, to be dug for manure, and occasionally for building."

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P. 34. "The Sarsden stones or grey wethers, as the country people call them, are irregularly scattered over the Wiltshire and Berkshire downs. They are pretty numerous in a valley near Ashdown park, in the road from thence to Lambourn, and seem as if they had been showered from heaven in some convulsion of nature, being totally unconnected with the soil on which they lie, which is here chalky; whereas, towards Compton Beauchamp, where they are likewise found, it is clayey. The Honourable, Daines Barrington has made some observations on these stones in the Archæologia. They are composed of a fine siliceous grit, and are frequently blasted with gunpowder, and used for pitching; but they resist the mason's tools."

See the note, p. 1, aforegoing; which was written, some considerable time, before I saw the work that is now before

me.

SUBSTRUCTURE.-P. 32. " At Catsgrove, near Reading, a stratum of chalk has been found, thirty feet in thickness, below which no experiments have been made in sinking, because a stratum of flint, where the water accumulates, lies immediately under. Above the chalk is a stratum of sandy clay, of about a foot thick, on which rests a layer of oyster shells, two feet more. Above the shells, is a stratum of sandy clay, one foot and a half thick; then four feet of greenish sand, and over, this three feet of coarse fuller's earth. Above all, is a very deep bed of clay, fit for tiles and bricks."

SUBJECT

SUBJECT THE SECOND.

POLITICAL ECONOMY.

APPRO

PPROPRIATION.-On this subject, Dr. Mavor speaks at some length, in three distinct sections; namely, 1. " Enclosing" &c., wherein is included a list of parishes, with the different states in which they were, in 1807;-thus furnishing valuable data for future topographers. 2. "Wastes.” 3." Common Fields."

In these separate divisions of the work, we find many ingenious remarks,-without much practical information.The subjoined passages are what appears, to me, eligible to be inserted, here.

Common Pastures.-P. 324. "Though Berkshire may be considered as a well cultivated county, the wastes are by far more extensive than in others which are infinitely behind it, in their general agricultural improvement. Including the sheep-walks, on the chalks hills, chiefly uninclosed, and which amount to about 25,000 acres, the whole quantity of land, in a comparatively unproductive state, cannot amount to less than 60,000 acres, or nearly one-sixth of the whole area.

"The forest of Windsor, Maidenhead thicket, Bulmarsh heath, and many smaller wastes, the downs from Ilsley to Ashbury, and a track of common and waste lands, begining at Inkpen, about eight miles to the south-west of Newbury, and running east, with a few intermission, as far as Windsor forest, of the breadth of two or three miles, and forming the Hampshire boundary, are incontestable proofs of what still remains to be done, in order to render Berkshire as rich, fertile, and productive as it might be made.".. For a disadvantage of Common Meadows, see Irrigation, ensuing.

Common Fields.-P. 492." The want of a general inclosure, and the enormous expences attending private bills of this kind being carried into execution, are not only checksi on agricultural improvement, but in many instances render it impossible. A common field bargain, in which many have an interest, but no one can be said to have an exclusive property, can neither be cultivated, drained, manured, or managed with any degree of spirit or effect. As for wastes, however productive they are susceptible of being made,

they

they are inevitably devoted to sterility and neglect, till allotted to individual owners; and it may be said in regard to all property, not in severalty,

The lands that many owners share,

Can never know an owner's care."

On the Difficulties of Appropriation, by separate Acts. -P. 141. "In courts of law, I have more than once seen the parties obliged to produce a written copy of a bill of enclosure; and in one instance, I am well assured that the solicitor in a suit of this kind, being pressed for time, and finding the clerks otherwise engaged, was glad to copy the act himself, and only received the usual attestation,, for which they were paid as if they had done the whole business. Even admitting the distinction between public and private bills, might not the subject be relieved, and the revenue increased, by affixing a stamp of five guineas to every private printed act, in order to give it the validity required? I throw out these hints to country gentlemen, members of parliament, whose interest and whose duty imperiously call upon them to bring forward some regulations in this respect.

"But it is not only in obtaining an act of parliament that the proprietors of land have to lament a wanton waste of money. The grand system of fleecing only commences with the circuitous and protracted manœuvres of solicitors and commissioners, who are to put it in force. Summonses are sent to every individual proprietor by the attorney, on the most trifling occasions, in order to swell his bill; and meeting is held on meeting by the commissioners, that they may come in for their full share of the spoil. When an act of parliament is passed, it must be a matter of notoriety to the proprietors of land, and an advertisement in the provincial papers ought to be the only further notice to parties interested in subsequent arrangements.

"At length the award is made out and signed; but this instrument, so far from defining every thing with a precision that will allow no scope for future litigation, has been known to contain accidental or intentional omissions, which furnish the lawyer with a future job, and involve the proprietors in new expences.

"But supposing every thing adjusted as it ought to be, which I will hope is frequently the case, it is alway expressly ordered that a copy of the award shall be deposited in the parish chest; and as a further security, that another copy shall be lodged with the clerk of the peace, or in one of the courts at Westminster. This wise provision, however, of rendering what concerns all easily accessible to all, at a

F

trifling

:

trifling expence, is not unusually defeated by the interested policy of the solicitor, who perhaps keeps the only copy of the award in his own possession, as long as the proprietors will submit to it and charges for information and extracts, according to his own fancy. I speak of practices that have fallen under my personal notice elsewhere."-excellent! MANUFACTURES." Berkshire," we are told, p. 472, "cannot be considered as a manufacturing County."

Under the Head, "Markets," the manufacture of each market town is noticed. Sack cloth appears to be, at present, a principal object. Formerly, different articles of the woolen trade were manufactured at

Newbury.-P. 460. "Newbury was formerly famous for its woollen manufactures; but these are now nearly lost, and hence a numerous poor.

"In the town and its vicinity, however, some kerseys, cottons, callicoes, linen, and damask, are now manufactured. Blankets are likewise made by some persons from Witney, in Oxfordshire; and it does not appear that they produce an inferior article.

"A paper-mill, on a large scale, does much business in its line. The paper is excellent, and applicable to almost every purpose of printing or writing."

Oakingham.-P. 462. "Three silk manufacturers have establishments here. One is for spinning, and two for weaving. Hatbands, ribbands, watch-strings, shoe-strings, sarcenets, figured gauzes for ladies' dresses, &c. are manufactured here."

Reading.-P. 465. "Large quantities of malt are made here for the London market; and not less than 20,000 sacks of flour are annually sent from hence to the same mart. The Abbey mills remain."

PUBLIC TAXES.-P. 494. "I am fully aware that the necessities of the state require, and I trust the patriotism of the subject will ever incline him to pay the very large aggregate sums now imposed, for the defence and support of all that can be dear to men; but in apportioning the taxes in such a manner as may be least oppressive, and pro'duce the best effect, all the wisdom of legislators and statesmen should be brought into action. With the greatest part of our rulers, for the last century or two, commerce has been the idol to which every thing has been sacrificed. A national debt of five hundred millions, an annual expenditure so enormous as almost to stagger belief that it could be raised, ttest this truth, without the necessity of a single argument for it will never be contended, that of the millions of debt which are ready to overwhelm us, one-fiftieth part was ever incurred by agriculture and internal improvement. Manufactures

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