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about two miles from the present coal-pits. This substance is also found diffused in very small pieces through all the beds of potters' clay in the parishes of Teigngrace and King's Teignton."
Mr. V. attempts the rationale of this extraordinary fossil. His ideas concerning it are very ingenious; but do not bring conviction to my mind. I am well acquainted with the site of the Bovey coal quarry, and the surrounding country.
Pipe Clay.-Bovey Pits.-Mr. Vancouver notices a use to which the refuse clay is put.-P. 43. "The waste clay dug out of these pits is converted into a beautiful white durable brick, by the admixture of about one-third part of sand. The clay is first dried in the open air, and then pounded and mixed dry with the sand, and afterwards worked and tempered together. It is necessary the bricks should be well dried before putting them in kilns."
Iron Stone.-P. 54. "A considerable quantity of very rich ironstone is annually sent from the neighbourhood of Combe-martin to Mr. Raby's iron-works at Llenethy, in South Wales.".
MINERALS. On this division of the natural economy of Devonshire, Mr. Vancouver is less intelligent, than on the two which precede it. Prosecuting the search, by Districts; -and picking up, bere and there, items of information, without afterward classing them, so as to place, in separate points of view, those which pertain to the different species of metals, that are raised, or were raised at the time of survey, in the separate parts of the County;-the chaotic aggregate becomes unpleasant to examine; and, in a degree, unprofitable to the student, who looks for something of the nature of scientific information.
PPROPRIATION.-P. 271. "It seemed a very desirable object, on the commencement of this Survey, to ascertain with as much correctness as possible, the extent of waste land belonging to the respective parishes in this district to this end, very particular inquiries were directed in all the different parishes; but so extremely vague and contradictory were the accounts received, together with the doubts entertained of the moors, in many places, being. appurtenant to particular estates, or open in common to all the inhabitants, that the subject at length became much confused,
confused, and involved in contradiction, and it was judged better to pass over those inquiries, and direct the attention more fully to the quality of such wastes, let their boundaries and extent be what they may, or the right of ownership in them be in whom it would."
P. 272. ("North Devon.")" According to the prevalence of drought or moisture in the surface and substrata of these wastes, their herbage and common covering is found to vary, and may generally be divided under the following heads:
"The first, of a soil formed of a tender light coloured loam when dry, but when moist, assuming a brighter brown colour, and lying upon a brown and grey clayey subsoil, veined and mixed with portions of small rubbly or argillaceous gravel. This land is always covered with a close and sweet herbage, on which the sheep are found to lie very hard, and to keep it constantly pared down. Through the loose veins of under-strata, springs occasionally rise, creating small spots of rushes, and a few square yards of boggy ground; its surface is otherwise free from any incumbrance of furze, fern, or heather, and seems as loudly to demand, as it appears willing to réquite the labours and fostering care of the skilful husband
"The second denomination of these wastes may be called furze and fern lands: a portion of granite gravel is always found to have place in the composition of their soil and substrata. This is generally of a drier nature than the one just noticed, and seems well adapted for a system of barley and turnip husbandry.
"The third class is that where a dwarf growth of heath or heather is found, but which is nearly smothered and eaten out with a variety of coarse aquatic grasses. The soil is bere generally composed of a dark moor or vegetable mould, lying on a close and deep stratum of blue and yellow clay, intermixed with a coarse argillaceous rubble, and a reddish coloured clay or fox-mould, equally retentive of, and generally charged with an undue proportion
"A fourth class is composed of a red spongy substance, answering, in all appearance, the character of a red Irish bog. This is always kept highly saturated with water, and is found of various depths, on a substratum of peat, which again ultimately rests on a compact bed of white, blue, and yellow clay. By conducting the improvement of this class in the manner its nature and situation demand, very great advantages must inevitably result, not only from the undertaking itself, but its effects on the surrounding,
surrounding, and even more remote districts, will gradually be felt, and found to prove highly beneficial to them.
"The last class of wastes necessary to notice in this place, is, that where the surface is composed of a dry, inveterate brown peat, of two or three inches in depth, and lying immediately on the granite and whinstone rock, or rather the loose flat stones answering to such characters. This peat having all the appearance of the red bog in a dried and compressed state, is seldom found to yield any thing but a strong luxuriant growth of ling, or black heather, and which is generally pared close to the stones or rock, for the purposes of fuel. In this appropriation, this class may be said to have attained the very acme of its nature, as it appears to be invincibly opposed to every effort of improvement by planting, or by any other means for the purpose of cultivation.
"The ancient moorlands in the district will be found very nearly to agree with the description given in Class No. 3, with the addition only of their surface generally having been left under ridge and furrow, and consequently bearing evident marks of a former cultivation.
"The present value of these lands may in general be rated at from 48. to 6s. per acre. It will be difficult to affix any thing like a standard value for the intercommonable lands, but on considering the relative value of the different classes, and placing the two last at Q, unless for the purposes of turbary, the preceding ones will rank at five, eight, and twelve shillings per acre, and all applicable to the purposes of feeding sheep and store cattle. No doubt ean possibly be entertained as to the propriety of enclosing and cultivating these old moors and waste lands; but until some farther disposition is manifested in the country to improve and cultivate such as are already held in severalty to particular estates, it will be idle and fruitless to suggest any measures for enclosing and cultivating those intercommonable lands, which at this time occupy so large a portion of the area of the district."
P. 278. (Dartmore.) " The forest of Dartmoor rises with a bold majestic grandeur over all the surrounding heights, which compose an extremely rough and broken region in this part of the county of Devon. After attaining the summit of this waste, it is found to spread generally (at least in comparison with the leading features of the country below) into an extended plan, and so much of this stupendous eminence as is called The Forest of Dartmoor, is divided by certain meets and bounds from the commons belonging to the surrounding parishes, and which, by calculation from the map of the moor, made by Mr. Thomas
Gray, in 1796, is found to contain 53,644 acres. forest belongs to His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, as appurtenant to, and parcel of the Duchy of Cornwall.
"The duty of the Surveyor on this occasion is deemed to be exclusively confined to the examination of the native properties of the forest, and how they may be most effectually and permanently improved to the public benefit, the advantages of the revenues of the Duchy, and above all, to the melioration of the climate of the moor, and consequently to that of the country below."
Neither in the Reporter's description of his Dartmore,nor in the means of improvement which he proposes,-can I perceive that Dartmore which I have traversed, again and again, in different directions; and seen from different points of view, I apprehend, every square mile of its surface. Nor can I discover any thing peculiarly applicable to its melioration;-the draining of its bogs excepted; and this is a species of improvement which is, now, pretty generally understood.
MANUFACTURES.-Formerly, different branches of the woollen manufacture,-mostly, it would seem, of the lighter kinds, florished in different parts of Devonshire; and some of them have lingered on to the present time. Women have, there, been employed, as weavers, during a length of years.
The mischiefs of complicated machines of manufacture, that are worked by water and children, to the exclusion of women, are shown in the following extract.-P. 464. "The want of employment for the females, particularly in the western parts of the county (and where they are not so much in the practice of making bone lace as to the eastward), is very much felt and complained of. About fifteen years since, it is notorious, that a good spinner would earn 38. 6d. per week; her time is now, through the general failure of that employment, too frequently spent in rummaging about for a few loose sticks in order to procure a scanty supply of fuel."
In the Vale of Exeter, lacemaking still florishes.
FISHERIES.-P. 75. "The herring fishery which was formerly carried on in these parts" (N. Devon.) " to a considerable extent, is now, from the caprice of that animal in forsaking the shores of the district, in a great measure lost, not only as a valuable supply and change of food for the inhabitants, but as an object of no small moment in curing for exportation."
P. 76. "A few herrings are still found to frequent the coast in the fall of the year, but they are very small both in size and quantity, and even this supply is equally uncertain."
The salmon fisheries, too, have declined, in the north, as in the west, of the County;-owing, as the Reporter imagines, to the nefarious practice of destroying the young samlets, in their passage from the breeding grounds to the sea. And to that unpardonable crime, the decline is no doubt, in some measure, to be ascribed.
SEA EMBANKMENT.-At the mouth, and on the banks, of the joint estuary of the Taw and the Torridge, an extent of unembanked saltings, or mudbanks open to the sea, and of a superior quality, is said to be ripe for embankment. - This is a subject to which Mr. Vancouver has paid much attention (see EASTERN DEPARTMENT-Vaterlands of Cambridgeshire); and his observations concerning it, in the volume under review, are entitled to transcription.
P. 299. "From the attention which the author of this Report has had an opportunity of paying to the nature and formation, as well as to the mode of embanking, cultivating, and appropriating salt-marsh in this country, Ireland, Holland, and America, no instance has occurred, or come within his knowledge, of any improvement being made ou a crude, tough, black sea-mud. This substance when dry, is the most rigid and untractable of all argillaceous compounds; on the contrary, salt-marsh, properly so called, when ripe and ready for embankment, is the mildest, most temperate, and permanently fruitful soil of any in the universe; and which before its embankment is, or should be raised to nearly, if not quite, the height of the ordinary flow of the spring-tides. The sea-mud, on the contrary, is covered every twelve hours with a depth of twelve or fifteen feet of pure, or nearly so, sea-water, and when embanked, lies perhaps a little above the line of low water mark.
"In proportion as all embankments from the sea have been made between these points of high and low water mark, they have answered or disappointed the views of the undertaker. Throughout all the seven townships of Marshland in Norfolk, the whole of which at different periods have been rescued from the sea, the earliest embankments, and those in the interior of the district, are uniformly lower in their general level, and of an inferior quality, to the level of country enclosed by a line of embankments made at a subsequent period. In this manner, the latter embankments continue on still higher plains to the present line of sea-coast, where the last of any importance that has been made, was effected by Captain Bentinck a few years since, by the enclosure of a very large tract (perhaps) twelve hundred acres. This lies upon a higher level than the interior enclosures, and soon after its embankment was esteemed by far the best of all. "Throughout