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over a field they intend for barley, spread it, and turn it immediately under furrow; for if they are not diligent and cautious in this work, the sun and the wind exhale its rich moisture; it shrinks almost to one half, and is then little worth."

Sea Shells, or Sea Shell-Marl; improperly named "Sea Sand;" which, without the shells, or the mucilage which appears to be formed from them, is of inconsiderable value, I believe, as manure.-P. 126. "Here is another inestimable treasure which Cornwall derives from her great extent of sea coast. Long experience has proved, that sea-sand is a fertilizer of the soil; good for corn, causing it to kern, or corn well, as well as for pulse and roots, and excellent for pasture. It is in such estimation with farmers, as materially to affect the value of estates, according to their nearness to, or distance from, this manure. It is frequently carried fifteen miles inland. Cornwall has perhaps a greater variety of shelly sands than any other county in Great Britain: Dr. Borlase enumerates thirty-two different kinds. It is in greater plenty, and, in general, of superior quality on the north coast than on the south; but there are very few places where one kind or other may not be had.

"The relative degrees of the fertilizing powers of seasand depend on the different proportions of calcareous and animal matter of which it is composed, but its effects on soils are mechanical, as well as chemical. There is indeed mixed with some sand, a slimy earthy matter, the recrement of leaves, wood, and perhaps animal remains; this, I believe, is what they call lig, or liggan, and has been found to be a good manure for potatoes. That sand which is in highest estimation is taken up about Falmouth Harbour, in Carrick Road; it is a coral sand, and of large size, effervesces strongly with acids, and lies longer in the ground, in an undissolved state, than any other. This sand is much in use about Truro, Probus, and the vicinity. There is also a much finer sand taken up at the mouth of the harbour, less calcareous, and less in request. All along the north coast, from the Land's-End to Bute Haven, the sands are very good, containing a large proportion of shelly fragments.

"Application.-When sea-sand is applied alone as a dressing, which is sometimes the case, both on grass and arable lands, they call it a clean sanding; but the most usual method is, to mix it in the compost with earth and dung. The quantity used per acre will depend on the ability of the farmer, and the distance he has to carry it. Three hundred sacks, of sixteen gallons each, is deemed a good sanding for a Cornish acre, and it is applied in all the intermediate quantities, even down to thirty sacks."

P. 128.

P. 128. "It is computed, that upwards of 54,000 cartloads of sand are carried from Padstow harbour only, and that the expense of land-carriage of sand, for the whole county, amounts to upwards of 30,000l. per annum."

Lime.-P. 128. "The only places where limestone is found in Cornwall, and burnt for manure, are in the parishes of South Petherwin and Veryan; the former is an old work, and, about half a century ago, the lime was much used in the neighbourhood of Launceston; it is still carried


"The Veryan limestone was discovered on the lands of the Rev. Mr. Trist, in 1796, and has been wrought by him ever since, both for manure and masonry."

ARABLE CROPS.-P. 57. " The corn crops cultivated in this county are wheat, barley, and oats; the avena nuda of Ray, in Cornwall called pilez, is also sown in small patches in the Western District; it bears the price of wheat, and is used for fattening pigs, or for rearing calves.

"The green and root crops, commonly cultivated by the farmers in Cornwall, consist of red and yellow clovers, trefoil, and rye-grass (called eaver in Cornwall), turnips, rutabaga, potatoes, and in some instances the flat-pole, or drumhead cabbage."

Mr. Worgan has spoken, at some length, on the culture of those crops. I perceive in his account, however, very little of consideration, that differs from the West Devonshire practice, which I have described in detail; and, to repeat it, here, would be an unnecessary encumbrance on my present Work.-What little variation of practice which I may find, in Mr. Worgan's Report, I will notice, in this place.

WHEAT. Succession.-P. 59. "Wheat too frequently succeeds a crop of barley; in this case, the barley stubble sometimes receives a manuring of earth and lime, or compost, which have been collected and mixed during the summer round the hedges of the barley field; this is carried out and spread upon the stubble, and after one ploughing, the wheat is sown and harrowed in."

NAKED OATS.-P. 66. " The Avena Nuda, provincially called Pilez, or Pillas.-The culture of this grain is confined to the western parts of Cornwall, and it is generally the farewell crop to a piece of ground that has been completely exhausted of vegetable food by preceding crops of potatoes, wheat, and oats. This plant grows something like the oat, but the straw is much finer, almost as good as hay; the grain is small, about the size of a shelled oat, and weighs as heavy as wheat per bushel; it is excellent for feeding poultry and pigs. One gallon of pilez mixed

with 20 gallons of potatoes, makes a rich fattening mess for pigs."

P. 67. "This grain has been chiefly grown in black, moory, moist soils; the tillage, culture, and harvest, the same as for oats."

TURNEPS.-P. 67. "The commencement of the grand preparation of the land for this crop, is announced early in June, by the whole district being enveloped in smoke, exhibiting at once the very general establishment of the turnip culture throughout the county, and the almost universal assent as to the utility of the practice of paring and burning for them many farmers would despair of success in the attempt to get a crop, without their beat ashes, nor do they think the benefit is confined to the turnip crop only, but shrewdly anticipate its good effects in one or two succeeding crops of corn. The ground, which is generally a lay from four to seven years or more old, having been stripped or velled, is dragged, harrowed, and rolled, then briskly harrowed a second time with two horses, which operation (provincially running tabs) is executed with a rapidity that would astonish the farmers in those counties where they use three or four heavy fat snail-paced horses. Here, a boy mounts one of the two light horses used, for the purpose, and keeps them at a smart trot until the earth is entirely shaken from the roots, and the weeds are made light and fit for burning; and now all hands, men, women, boys and girls, with short-headed rakes, having long wooden teeth set about three inches asunder, begin at the leeward side of the field, and rake the light well-harrowed tabs into small heaps; a wad of straw, or a bit of furze, is put into each heap on the windward side, and just before they go to dinner, they set fire to all the heaps got together in the morning. In the afternoon the business of raking, priming, and firing, goes on until a late hour in the evening, for it is a kind of harvest work, bustle bustle, for a month or six weeks.

"They are very careful that this process of incineration shall be carried on by a smothered heat, so that the roots appear rather charred, than consumed by flame."—In this particular, the men of Cornwall have much merit.

CULTIVATED HERBAGE.-P. 83. "A mixture of red clover, from 5lb. to 8 lb., of trefoil from 2lb. to 4lb. and from six to ten gallons of rye-grass, or eaver, are the grass-seeds most usually sown with either barley or oats in the spring, for a hay crop the next year, after which, the lands are left in lay during two or three years. Many farmers add to the above, from 2 lb. to 4 lb. of white clover, and some few, a pound or two of rib-grass, by way of providing for the de


ficiency of pasture when the red clover fails, which it naturally does after the second year."

GRASS LANDS.-" Natural Meadows."-P. 89. " The lands in Cornwall which come under this description, are to be met with in the vicinity of towns and villages, on sheltered slopes, in valleys, level and moist situations, on the banks of the great rivers; and most farmers select a field or two near their homesteads, which they appropriate to the feeding their calves, or milch cows, early in the spring."

Natural Pasture.-P. 39. " The natural pastures consist of the uncultivated lan is, which in Cornwall are distinguished by the names of moors, downs, crofts, and wastes. Nature has clothed hem with two species of furze; with ferns, heath, and the poorer kinds of grasses, which are depastured by cattle, sheep, and goats; to the latter of which animals a great proportion of the coarser lands, particularly in the mining districts, are adapted."

"Cultivated Pasture."-P. 90." These are such as have borne two or three successive crops of corn, with the last of which grass-seeds have been sown: they remain as pastures from two to three, or five years, before they are again broken up for corn."

HOPS.-P. 83. "Have been much grown in Roseland, but the culture is on the decline: the duties increasing, and hops from Kent and Hampshire finding their way bere, the Cornish hop-grower is discouraged; for except he can sell at 15d. per lb. it is a losing crop; half a pound to a hill is a great crop."

ORCHARDS.-P. 93. "In sheltered situations, many of the farms are furnished with orchards; but I am sorry to find, that in some of the western parts of the county, the orchards have of late years been very much neglected, and that the cultivation of them in general does not prevail so much as in Devonshire."

It is a well established fact, I believe, that the climature of Cornwall is ungenial to orchard produce; unless in the more sheltered parts of its eastern quarter.

HORSES.-P. 153. "Few horses in Cornwall are kept for ostentation, or to live in idleness and luxury. The gentleman's horse often disdains not to draw the cart or the plough, when not wanted for the coach or the chariot, thus the produce of his labour far exceeds his maintenance. The farm horses are excellently adapted to the hilly surface of the county; they are rather small, but hardy and active, and it may be truly said, they eat no idle oats. Most farmers keep up their stock, by breeding a colt or two annually; but I believe that one eighth of the horses used for the


saddle and draught, are brought into the county by eastern dealers."

CATTLE.-Breed.-P. 140. "The native cattle of Cornwall are very small, of a black colour, short horned, coarseboned, and large offal; very hardy. There are certainly cattle now, in different parts of the county, which partake of the above qualities. I have met with black cows and bulls of a small size, weighing perhaps from three to four


This is, to me, peculiarly interesting intelligence. It sufficiently shows that the three more mountainous portions of this island have been, beyond the ken of history or tradition, inhabited by Celtic tribes, and black cattle:—while the lower, more genial and fertile parts, have been occupied by different races of men and animals.

It has been said, with what degree of truth I cannot affirm, that, in every mountainous tract of Europe, a dialect of the Celtic language is spoken.-May we venture to suggest, on such slender evidence, that the CELTIC TRIBES were, aboriginally, the natural,-or, by long-established habits, in far distant times, became the voluntary INHABITANTS of MOUNTAINS; and that black cattle and goats have ever, or long, been their accompanying domestic animals?

P. 139. "Two opinions prevail in Cornwall, on the breed of cattle for slaughter; the one is, that symmetry of shape, proportional length, breadth, and roundness, with a fine bone, thin hide, and small offal, with the colour of a bloodred, form the basis on which the properties of health, hardiness, and an aptitude to fatten, principally depend. The prime North Devon cattle comprise these essentials, in a degree sufficient to satisfy any breeder or feeder of reasonable expectations.

"The other opinion is in favour of the boney system. 'Give me,' says the still prejudiced farmer, a snug tight bullock, with a stout frame of bone, to build my flesh and fat upon; and a good thick bide to keep out the cold and wet: they be strong and hardy, Sir, cost little or nothing in keep, range the moors, live and thrive on furze and heath in summer, and in winter too, with a little straw; get as fat as moles when put on turnips; the butcher likes 'mun (them); they tallow well, and hide tells in the tanner's scale.' Such is the colloquial information you will get from the more rustic sons of agriculture, who form a pretty numerous class in Cornwall. As to Leicestershire lines of beauty, they tell you, in homestead plainness, they won't do here; and to argue with them, would be taking the bull by the horns."

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There appears, to me, to be more good sense and practical knowledge

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