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manure, equal, and by some thought to be superior, to chalk, and cheaper to those who live near the place where it is dug. It is found in the highest perfection upon an estate of the Earl of Egremont's, at Kirdford, from 10 to 20 feet under ground, where it is in flakes nine or ten inches in thickness. Much of it was used in the Cathedral at Canterbury, the pillars, monuments, vaults, pavement, &c. of that venerable structure, being built of this article, called there the Petworth Marble. The Archbishop's chair is an entire piece.

"Besides the limestones of this" (?) " district, I shall set down a short account of what I had a more immediate opportunity of seeing, by observing the gradations in the earth, and mineral beds of ironstone and limestone, to the depth of 120 feet, at Ashburnham-furnace";-which is situated toward the eastern extreme of the County.

The Reporter speaks, at some length, about those beds of ironstone and limestone. But his elucidations are not sufficiently clear to the mind's eye of ordinary capacities.

Other Fossils.-P. 15. "Beside the minerals abovementioned, a vast range of hills, the composition of which is chalk, occupy a considerable part of the county, adjoining the coast. Marl is dug up on the south side of these hills, in various places. Fullers'-earth is found at Tillington, and consumed in the neighbouring fulling-mills; and red-ochre at Graffham, and in various places adjoining the sea, as Chidham, &c. much of which goes to London."

SUBJECT THE SECOND.

POLITICAL ECONOMY.

APPRO

PPROPRIATION.-Under this head, I place the subjoined extract; but without knowing whether the "Wastes," therein mentioned, are or are not, appropriated.

P. 187. ("Chapter Wastes.")" The tracts of land which come under the description of mere wastes, in Sussex, are very considerable; they chiefly occupy the northern side of the county: out of a portion containing, by computation, 500,000 acres, these almost desert tracts take up no less a space than 110,000 acres of it."

FUEL.-P. 413." Coal or wood, in a few places turf is used. The woods are very extensive; yet the price bas greatly increased: great quantities are made into charcoal, and still larger (of the smaller sort) burnt for lime."

The

The Reporter recommends the Rumfordization of cottage fireplaces; in order to lessen the expence of fuel. And an ingenious annotator adds the subjoined notice.

N. p. 414. "I have known a leg of mutton and turnips boiled in a wooden pail. The trick was thus performed: a six feet barrel of a fowling-piece was inserted at the muzzle in the pail, the other end placed against the fire; the water flowing to the breech of the barrel, the whole was made to boil. Quere, might not furnaces and vessels be heated in different rooms by the kitchen-fire only, by means of tubes of cast iron, with a large butt at the end conveniently fitted to be heated?-Mr. Trayton."

MANUFACTURES.-P. 431. "Sussex, in the common acceptation of the term, is not a manufacturing district. Formerly there were very extensive iron-works which flourished in the Weald, but only the remnant of them are at present in existence."

P. 432. "The manufacture of charcoal is an object of some consequence in such a county as Sussex. Large quantities are annually sent to London by land-carriage. The old process in burning has been lately laid aside," (?) "and a new method substituted; as, after various experiments, the powder made upon this new principle, has, upon proof of its strength, been found much superior to that which was made in the old way. And accordingly this ingenious mode has been suggested to Government, by the Bishop of Llandaff, of making the charcoal in iron cylinders, of such a construction, as effectually to exclude the air."

This beautifully simplex apparatus I have seen employed. It is, I believe, understood to be the invention of DoCTOR WATSON *. If so, his rapid researches in chemistry,which gave so much offence to the orthodox, in learning, and so little satisfaction to veterans, in science,-were not made in vain.

POOR RATES.-P. 455. "The rental of the Weald of Sussex is much affected by the extravagance of the poorrates; and, comparatively with the intrinsic value of the land, there is no part of the island where it is lett at so low a price in common years the rate through a considerable district, is at ten shillings in the pound, rackrents; and during late years of scarcity, they amounted to 258., and even in some parishes to 358. in the pound, at rack-rents."-Can this be, in a "non-manufacturing district"?

* Now, the late Doctor Watson.

P. 33.

P. 33. "From an inspection of the rate-books in various parts of the county, it establishes the fact, of a considerable increase having almost invariably arisen. But this is to be understood as relating to those parishes where houses of industry have not been set up; since, where these have been established (although very recently founded), the contrary has followed. In eleven parishes united at Sutton, in the lower rape of Arundel, though the junction was formed as late as 1791, the rates have diminished."

So short a trial is no proof of the permanent utility of "Houses of Industry;"-otherwise, PRISONS of PAUPERS. While they are closely attended to, by men of influence and leisure, who have pleasure in patronizing something new-they may be "found to answer"--the purpose of parishes;-and may be agreeable play places for the young and dissolute.-But, to the aged and infirm, that have been torn from their connexions, and dragged, perhaps, several miles from their native or long-inhabited homes, perhaps, from their children and consoling friends, their only solace under their afflictions!-such an arbitrary, unsocial, unnatural plan of treatment is cruel and unwarrantable, in a civilized nation;-even under the inspection of disinterested and well meaning persons; and still more so, after the novelty of the "Improvement" has passed away, and they are left to the morose usage of an unfeeling superintendant; perhaps a farmer of the establishment; whose best interest it must be, to keep them in a state of starvation and filthiness:-in a state altogether unfit for the aged, the infirm, and the unfortunate; who may have seen, what is termed, "better days." For further remarks, see Workpeople, ensuing.

TITHES.-P. 30. "The mode of collecting tithes is variable. In the western parts of the county, the composition which generally takes place, is at the average rate of 4s. 6d. in the pound. The lay impropriators compound by the acre. Wheat, 4s. 6d. ; barley, oats, and pease, 2s. 6d.; pasture and meadow, 28. per acre. These tithes, on the whole, are allowed to be moderate and very fair.

"In other parts of Sussex, tithes are higher, and fall with greater weight upon the occupier. About Cuckfield, wheat from 5s. to 6s.; bariey, 2s. 6d. to 3s. In many places they are taken in kind, as Hailsham, &c."

P. 32. "The mode, as at present adopted, of collecting tithes, although perhaps levied with as little hardship upon the occupier as the nature of the case admits, is, without any doubt, exposed to the strongest objections. These have of late been so much and so ably discussed, that a repetition of the complaints would be needless. Certainly

tithes are a heavy deduction from the profit of farming, and an onus of no inconsiderable weight upon improvement. An arrangement of such a nature as to embrace equally the interest of the farmer and clergyman, is the object so much to be wished for."-These well expressed sentiments, I am happy in saying, appear to my mind greatly creditable to the writer of them,-as a clerical

man.

INLAND NAVIGATION.-P. 421. "The Arun is navigable from the sea to its junction with the New Cut, 17 miles 3 furlongs; and from thence a company of merchants extended it as far as Newbridge;"-near the village of Green, which is situated near the center of the Vale Lands, or Weald proper, of Sussex.

P. 422. The passage from Little Hampton to Newbridge is two days and a half, using a horse: the tide flows 17 miles of the way, and by going through Hardham tunnel, the barges save six hours of time."

"In order to extend the benefit of water-carriage to other parts of Sussex, the Earl of Egremont lately procured an Act of Parliament, enabling his Lordship, at his own sole expense, to make the Rother navigable from its junction with the Arun, as far as Midhurst; and by a collateral branch to Haslingbourne, within half a mile of Petworth."

"By this most useful and public spirited undertaking, many thousand acres of land are necessarily rendered more valuable to the proprietors. Timber is now sent by water. Large falls have been exported which would scarcely have been felled; and the Government Agents and Contractors have made large purchases, in consequence of a more easy communication to the sea. An additional tract of country is also supplied with lime, from the Houghton and Bury pits."

P. 423. "At least 40,000 ton is annually sent from the Houghton pits, in consequence of Lord Egremont's improving the navigation of this part of the county."

P. 425. "A considerable part of the original plan still remains to be carried into execution: it is, to connect London with Sussex, and to lay open that market to the produce of this county, and receiving its goods and merchandize in return. By a direct communication from Petworth to Guildford, by a collateral branch to Horsham, a very considerable proportion of the county would be benefited: the ground has been surveyed, and the levels taken; and if ever it should be effected, the value of estates would in many places be more than doubled."-See my SOUTHERN

COUNTIES.

P. 426.

P. 33. "From an inspection of the rate-books in various parts of the county, it establishes the fact, of a considerable increase having almost invariably arisen. But this is to be understood as relating to those parishes where houses of industry have not been set up; since, where these have been established (although very recently founded), the contrary has followed. In eleven parishes united at Sutton, in the lower rape of Arundel, though the junction was formed as late as 1791, the rates have diminished.".

So short a trial is no proof of the permanent utility of "Houses of Industry;"-otherwise, PRISONS of PAUPERS. While they are closely attended to, by men of influence and leisure, who have pleasure in patronizing something new-they may be "found to answer" the purpose of parishes-and may be agreeable play places for the young and dissolute. But, to the aged and infirm, that have been torn from their connexions, and dragged, perhaps, several miles from their native or long-inhabited homes, perhaps, from their children and consoling friends, their only solace under their afflictions!-such an arbitrary, unsocial, unnatural plan of treatment is cruel and unwarrantable, in a civilized nation;-even under the inspection of disinterested and well meaning persons; and still more so, after the novelty of the "Improvement" has passed away, and they are left to the morose usage of an unfeeling superintendant ;-perhaps a farmer of the establishment; whose best interest it must be, to keep them in a state of starvation and filthiness-in a state altogether unfit for the aged, the infirm, and the unfortunate; who may have seen, what is termed, "better days." For further remarks, see Workpeople, ensuing.

TITHES.-P. 30. "The mode of collecting tithes is variable. In the western parts of the county, the composition which generally takes place, is at the average rate of 4s. 6d. in the pound. The lay impropriators compound by the acre. Wheat, 4s. 6d. ; barley, oats, and pease, 2s. 6d.; pasture and meadow, 2s. per acre. These tithes, on the whole, are allowed to be moderate and very fair.

"In other parts of Sussex, tithes are higher, and fall with greater weight upon the occupier. About Cuckfield, wheat from 5s. to 6s.; bariey, 2s. 6d. to 3s. In many places they are taken in kind, as Hailsham, &c."

P. 32. "The mode, as at present adopted, of collecting tithes, although perhaps levied with as little hardship upon the occupier as the nature of the case admits, is, without any doubt, exposed to the strongest objections. These have of late been so much and so ably discussed, that a repetition of the complaints would be needless. Certainly

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