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using it, is by mixing it in layers among the farm-yard dung in the mix-hills. It is of great use in helping to rot the dry part of dung carried out of the farm-yard in summer." This is not a common, but may nevertheless be an eligible, method of using this valuable species of local manure.

Lime.-P. 77. "The tenants" (in the Weald) "are bound to lay one hundred bushels of lime per acre on the fallows for wheat; and generally put on double that quantity.

"This lime is made of chalk, from the hill before mentioned," (Middle Kent hills)" and is brought from the distance of twenty miles to some of the parishes, though there is excellent limestone in the centre of the Weald; and even in the parish of Bethersden, famous for a fine limestone, called Bethersden marble, chalk-lime is preferred; and the chalk to make it is procured from a considerable distance. Chalk-lime is applied to stiff clay-lands, and stone-lime to sandy soils."

I insert this notice, though I may not implicitly rely on its authenticity. It is (with its tautology) twice inserted in this Report. The close of it, if correct, is interesting.

TILLAGE.-Fallowing.-P. 57. "On the cold stiff lands on the hills running across the county, from Dover to Wrotham, fallowing for wheat every fourth year, is the general practice. In East Kent, fallows are always made on poor lands, more or less, as occasion requires; in some cases, to get the land clean from weeds; and in others, where weeds do not abound, to make a good tilth for a crop of wheat, if a stiff, and barley, if a light soil. On the very worst soils, where wheat is never sown, fallows are frequently made for oats or barley, and for getting land into fine tilth for rye-grass, or other seeds.

"In the Isle of Shepey, fallows are made every six or eight years for wheat; and in the Weald of Kent, the farmers are bound by the covenants of their leases to make summer-fallows, and to lime for wheat.

"On the clay and stiff soils of West Kent, fallows are usually made for wheat; and in all parts of the county where sainfoin is intended to be sown, a good summerfallow is invariably made by the best husbandmen.

"When any kind of soil has borne three or four crops of corn in succession, and is become full of weeds, a well made summer-fallow is certainly requisite, not only to destroy the weeds, but likewise to meliorate and invigorate the soil: it is the most certain cure, the speediest, and, in the end, the cheapest."

P. 83. "Many writers on husbandry recommend drilling,

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with a view to keep the land clean by hoeing, and thereby supersede the necessity of making summer-fallows: but those authors should recollect, that if all the crops were drilled, it would require more than treble the present number of husbandmen to perform the operation of hoeing them; and therefore summer-fallows must be continued, until the population is sufficiently increased to clean the land without them."

This is a new argument, in favour of fallowing. But it is not of much force. For it were as easy to cure a scabbed sheep with simple water, as to clean effectually foul arable lands, such as require a summer-fallow-with the hoe;-be the state of population what it may.

ARABLE CROPS.

SPECIES.-P. 79. "The crops most commonly grown in Kent, are wheat, barley, beans, oats, and pease; also hops, canary-seed, radish-seed, turnips, and colewort: these are the principal ones, and are found almost on every farm, having a soil adapted for them."

WHEAT.-Barn Management.-P. 83. "The thrashing of wheat is performed with a flail on an oaken floor on most farms of 80%. rent and upwards; but on smaller farms, on an earthern floor."

Thrashing Mills.-P. 50. "The first, and I believe the only threshing mill in the county, is at Betstranger, which I erected about three years ago."

Winnowing Wheat.-P. 84. "It is universally in Kent, cleaned with a casting-shovel, and flat broom, called a spry, which sweeps off the chaff and white coats with the small pieces of straw that fly among the corn. This method of cleaning corn is certainly the most expeditious and best, where the barn-floor is large, and of a sufficient length: but in a small room, the winnowing machines will do it better, and perhaps cheaper."

Produce of Wheat.-P. 84. "In any county like this, where the soil is so extremely various, it is impossible to make any accurate estimate of the produce of the wheat crop. There are many situations where two quarters per acre are a very good crop; while double that quantity on some others, is but a very indifferent one: twenty-two bushels per acre may probably be nearly the annual average growth."

This produce does not corroborate the repeated representation of the pre-eminent state of husbandry in Kent. It is barely, I apprehend, the medium produce of the kingdom, at large.

BARLEY.-P. 84. "Barley. There are only two sorts of

this grain cultivated; the common long eared English barley, and the short eared sprat-barley: the latter is only sown on some of the richest parts of the soil, where the common kind is likely to grow too stout, and fall."

On the culture of "Thanet barley," celebrated throughout the land, not a syllable is said!

BEANS.-P. 85. "These are usually either drilled, dropped by hand, or boxed, in furrows eighteen inches apart, from three and a half to four bushels per acre, in February and March; in either case they are generally hand and horse-hoed twice, and sometimes three times, and lastly hand-weeded. The crop is reaped about the end of August or beginning of September, and thrashed by a flail, cleaned with the casting-shovel and spry, and then sifted to take out the dirt and small beans. The produce is from two to six quarters per acre, in proportion to the strength of the land and management."

P. 143. "The bean and pea-crop is invariably horsehoed two or three times; the first, as soon as the rows appear; they are then hoed by the hand along the sides of the furrows, with a plate about five inches wide; as soon as that is done, they are horse-hoed a second time; and if a second hand-hoeing is thought necessary, it is repeated; and then the beans are horse-hoed a third time with an earthing plate, to raise the mould against their stems."

PEAS.-P. 90. "All the kinds of pease are drilled in rows, about eighteen inches apart, from the middle of February till the end of March, and sometimes later, when untoward seasons intervene. These crops are cultivated, during the summer, with horse and hand-hoes, the same as the bean crops; and are harvested from the middle of July till the end of September, as they become ripe. They are reaped with a hook, called a podware hook, and thrashed as other crops of corn. The produce is from one and a half to five quarters per acre. Leadman's Dwarf and the Early Grey pease, are thought to be the most prolific."

CANARY SEED. This, in East Kent, may be deemed an article of farm produce; and Mr. Boys, accordingly, classes it among "crops commonly cultivated."

P. 91. Canary Seed. There are three kinds of tilths for this crop; viz. summer-fallow, bean-stubble, and cloverlay; the last the best. If the land is not very rich, a coat o rotten dung is frequently spread for it. Whether manured or not, the tillage necessary is to plough the land the first opportunity that offers after wheat sowing is done; and, as soon as the land is tolerably dry in the spring, furrows are made about eleven or twelve inches

apart

apart, and the seed is sown broad-cast, about four or five gallons per acre, and well harrowed in; when the blade appears, and the rows are distinct, the intervals are immediately hoed with a Dutch hoe, and afterwards, in May or June, the hoeing is repeated with a common hoe; carefully cutting up every weed, and thinning the plants in the furrows, if they are too thick. It is cut in the harvest, which is always later than any corn-crop, with a hook, called a twibil, and a hink; by which it is laid in lumps, or wads, of about half a sheaf each.

"The seed clings remarkably to the husk; and, in order to detach it, the crop must be left a long time on the ground to receive moisture sufficient to destroy the texture of the envelopement, otherwise it would be hardly possible to thrash out the seed. The wads are turned from time to time to have the full benefit of the rains and sun; it has sometimes continued in the field till December without vegetating, or suffering any kind of injury.

"The produce is from three to five quarters per acre; and it is sold to the seedsmen in London, who send it to all parts of Europe for feeding small birds, which are kept in cages. The offal of this article is a most excellent food for horses."

MADDER.-P. 101. "This is a plant used by the dyers, which has been formerly much cultivated in the eastern part of this county; but I believe is now entirely given up."

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TURNEPS.-P. 92. "This plant is more sown with us every year. Thirty years ago, hardly one farmer in a hundred grew any; and now there are few, especially in the upland parts, that do not sow some every year."

This is interesting information; seeing how long turneps have been cultivated, in the adjoining county of Surrey. Thin calcareous soils, it is true, are not favorable to this crop; owing principally, I believe, to a want of room for the tap roots. But, by collecting the cultivated mold into ridgets, in the Tweedside manner, soils of a moderate depth, as four or five inches, will produce tolerable crops of turneps; provided an extra quantity of seed be allowed; this being a boon, I believe, which all calcareous lands, whether chalk or limestone, require. From the circumstance of only one page being bestowed on this valuable crop by a practical man on a large scale, and that page not very intelligent, we may, I think, conclude that, in 1796, the turnep crop might have been deemed an alien in East Kent.

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TURNER CABBAGE.-P. 104. "Turnip-rooted Cabbage. This kind was first introduced in general culture by the late

Mr.

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AGRICULTURE

this grain cultivated; the common long eared i
barley, and the short eared sprat-barley: the latter
sown on some of the richest parts of the soil, wher
common kind is likely to grow too stout, and fall?
On the culture of "Thanet barley," celebrated th
out the land, not a syllable is said!

BEANS.-P. 85. "These are usually either drilled, in
ped by hand, or boxed, in furrows eighteen inches
from three and a half to four bushels per acre, in Febr
and March; in either case they are generally hand
horse-hoed twice, and sometimes three times, and l
hand-weeded. The crop is reaped about the end of Augs
or beginning of September, and thrashed by a flail, de
with the casting-shovel and spry, and then sifted to t
out the dirt and small beans. The produce is from
to six quarters per acre, in proportion to the streng
the land and management."daddywed

P. 143. "The bean and pea-crop is invariably be
hoed two or three times; the first, as soon as the
appear; they are then hoed by the hand along the side
of the furrows, with a plate about five inches wide; as s
as that is done, they are horse-hoed a second time; and
a second hand-hoeing is thought necessary, it is repeated
and then the beans are horse-hoed a third time with a
earthing plate, to raise the mould against their stems."

PEAS.-P. 90. "All the kinds of pease are drilled in
rows, about eighteen inches apart, from the middle of
February till the end of March, and sometimes later, when
untoward seasons intervene. These crops are cultivated,
during the summer, with horse and hand-hoes, the same
as the bean crops; and are harvested from the middle of
July till the end of September, as they become ripe. They
are reaped with a hook, called a podware hook, and
thrashed as other crops of corn. The produce is from
one and a half to five quarters per acre. Leadman's Dwarf
and the Early Grey pease, are thought to be the most
prolific."
t to be th

CANARY SEED. This, in East Kent, may be deemed an article of farm produce; and Mr. Boys, accordingly, classes it among "crops commonly cultivated."

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P. 91. Canary Seed. There are three kinds of tilths for this crop; viz. summer-fallow, bean-stubble, and cloverlay; the last the best. If the land is not very rich, a coat o rotten dung is frequently spread for it. Whether manured or not, the tillage necessary is to plough the land the first opportunity that offers after wheat sowing is done; and, as soon as the land is tolerably dry in the spring, furrows are made about eleven or twelve inches

apart

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