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Laps of nearly 200lb. neat; coals 36s. per chaldron of thirty-
Basix bushels; a half peck loaf of best wheaten bread, zs."

FUEL.-P. 167. "Coals are brought from Newcastle and
Sea Cat
Sunderland to all the maritime ports of Kent, and from
thence are distributed to the interior parts, seldom exceed-
Wing 30s. per chaldron in time of peace.

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66

Faggots of wood are found in plenty in the western and middle parts of Kent."

MANUFACTURES.-P., 173. "The manufactures of this county are very trifling; probably owing to the successful attention generally paid to agriculture and grazing. It has been observed by sensible writers on agriculture, that where manufactures most flourish, the land is most neglected; and this county is an instance of the truth of the observation. There is hardly any county to be named where agriculture is arrived at such perfection, or where there are so few manufactures as in this. There are some, however. At Canterbury, silk has been manufactured to a considerable extent; but it is now giving way to cotton."

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At Dover and Maidstone are manufactories of paper, of all sorts. At Stoner, near Sandwich, and the Isle of Grain, are salt-works. At Whitstable and Deptford are large copperas works; and in the Weald of Kent, bordering on Sussex, are furnaces for casting iron.

66 Gunpowder is made at Deptford and Faversham; and at Crayford there are large works for printing of callicoes, and the whitening of linens."

POOR RATES, P. 39. "The expences of the poor vary so exceedingly in the different parishes throughout this county, that it will be impossible for me to make any exact report on this subject. Some parishes expend no more than 6d. in the pound on their rents, while many others exceed even 5 or 6s. It is a general complaint, that these expences are annually on the increase.”

TITHE.-P., 34. "In the Isle of Thanet, the whole of the rectorial tithes are collected, but the vicarial are chiefly compounded for; part is neither collected nor compounded at present, nor has been for some years, owing to a litigation about the right to the tithe of turnips, &c. In the eastern part of the county, the rectorial are almost invariably paid in kind, and the vicarial mostly compounded for, excepting in some instances, where there are disagreements between the vicars and their parishioners.

"The rich lands about the towns of Faversham, Sandwich, and Deal, have their tithes chiefly collected. In the Isle of Shepey, the same."

Nevertheless, in a note p. 37, a clergyman asserts, somewhat sophistically, "There are very few instances of

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The whole extent of these commons, I apprehend, does not, comprehend more than 20,000 acres. The soil of as few of them cousists of a poor cold loam; of others, of a wet stiff clay; but, the principal part abounds in gravel and sand. They are in general covered with furze and fern, interspersed with patches. of grass; and feed some lean cattle and poor half starved sheep. If they were in a state of severalty, under proper systems of management, they might undoubtedly be made of great value. Inclosures! would do much; industry and due attention to the natural produce, and what has been cultivated on similar soils in other places, would do more.".

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P. 53. "There is no portion of Kent that is, occupied by a community of persons, as in many other counties. Our commons for live stock are generally much covered with furze, thorns, brakes, or heath, with a mixture of plots of poor grass-land; the cattle and sheep feeding upon them, are of course in a half-starved state. The total destruction of all commonable rights, by a general act of parliament for inclosing, is an object, in my humble opinion, of the greatest magnitude to the interests of this kingdom in general, and to this county in particular. There have been some exertions for accomplishing a division and inclosure of an extensive common in East Kent, within these few years; which failed for want of unanimity among the persous concerned."

PROVISIONS.-P. 166. "The easy communication between all parts of this county and the metropolis, renders the markets of Smithfield and Mark-lane the regulating medium, by which the prices of all kinds of provisions that are sold in the county are governed. If wheat rises 2s. per quarter at London, it immediately does the same at all the markets in the county, and if buchers meat is plentiful, and falls in price in Smithfield, it soon lowers in the country markets."

P. 167. "The present prices of Provisions, December, 1795.-Mutton 6d. beef 51d. veal 8d. pork 7d. bacon 8d.k butter 12d, and good Cheshire cheese 7d. per pound, of sixteen ounces avoirdupois; potatoes 85. to 10s, per sack.os

of

of nearly 2001b. neat; coals 36s. per chaldron of thirtysix bushels; a half peck loaf of best wheaten bread, 2s.”

FUEL.-P. 167. "Coals are brought from Newcastle and Sunderland to all the maritime ports of Kent, and from thence are distributed to the interior parts, seldom exceeding 30s. per chaldron in time of peace.

"Faggots of wood are found in plenty in the western and middle parts of Kent."

MANUFACTURES.-P., 173. "The manufactures of this county are very trifling; probably owing to the successful attention generally paid to agriculture and grazing. It has been observed by sensible writers on agriculture, that where manufactures most flourish, the land is most neglected; and this county is an instance of the truth of the observation. There is hardly any county to be named where agriculture is arrived at such perfection, or where there are so few manufactures as in this. There are some, however. At Canterbury, silk has been manufactured to a considerable extent; but it is now giving way to cotton."

"At, Dover and Maidstone are manufactories of paper, of all sorts. At Stoner, near Sandwich, and the Isle of Grain, are salt-works. At Whitstable and Deptford are large copperas works; and in the Weald of Kent, bordering on Sussex, are furnaces for casting iron.

"Gunpowder is made at Deptford and Faversham; and at Crayford there are large works for printing of callicoes, and the whitening of linens."

POOR RATES.-P. 39. "The expences of the poor vary so exceedingly in the different parishes throughout this county, that it will be impossible for me to make any exact report on this subject. Some parishes expend no more than 6d. in the pound on their rents, while many others exceed even 5 or 6s. It is a general complaint, that these expences are annually on the increase."

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TITHE.-P. 34. "In the Isle of Thanet, the whole of the rectorial tithes are collected, but the vicarial are chiefly compounded for; part is neither collected nor compounded at present, nor has been for some years, owing to a liti gation about the right to the tithe of turnips, &c. In the eastern part of the county, the rectorial are almost invariably paid in kind, and the vicarial mostly compounded for, excepting in some instances, where there are disagreements between the vicars and their parishioners.

"The rich lands about the towns of Faversham, Sandwich, and Deal, have their tithes chiefly collected. In the Isle of Shepey, the same."

Nevertheless, in a note p. 37, a clergyman asserts, somewhat sophistically, "There are very few instances of

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the clergy taking tithe in kind in this county."To which the Reporter tartly replies" But they let them to others that do, which is the same thing to the cultivators.”

P. 36. "If a fair commutation for tithe could be devised, so as to satisfy all parties, there can be no doubt but that the product of this island, great as it already is, would be much increased by the additional stock of productions from that circumstance.

"There would be another very considerable advantage to the public, in the saving of labour in harvest, by the corn being carried into the occupier's barns in much less time than it is carried into those of the parsonage: the latter being frequently at a great distance from some part of the parish, much time is spent in getting the corn home. The value of the difference of the labourer, bes tween carrying the tithe-corn into the parsonage and farmer's barn, is just so much loss to the public; and if rightly calculated for the whole kingdom, would amount to an immense sum. Among the disadvantages to the public in the collection of tithe in kind, the quarrels between neighbours, who perhaps would otherwise be very good friends, is a very material one; and more particularly where the tithe gatherer happens to be the clergyman; but this is seldom the case in the Isle of Thanet, the tithe there being mostly in lay-hands."

From the adverse notes that stand at the feet of the pages on tithes, as well as from the text itself, it is evident that a degree of animosity existed, at the time of reporting, between the cultivators and the tithe gatherers of Kent: an unfortunate circumstance which I found to be cor roborated, about that time, by the low estimation in which the clergy were held, at market meeting, by the higher class of occupiers, in that County;-comparatively, I mean, with what I have observed, in the rest of the kingdom.

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WATER CARRIAGE.-P. 24. This county possesses advantages superior to any other in point of navigation, from its extensive range of sea-coast, and the two great navigable rivers, the Thames and Medway, besides those of less note, the Stour and the Rother. The two former are navigable for the largest ships to Woolwich and Chatham, and for small craft to a very great distance."

MARKETS.-P. 172. "The chief part of the agricultural commerce of this county, is that of exporting corn to the London markets; very little is sent to foreign ports directly from Kent, though much of the Kentish corn goes abroad, when corn is exported, from the grand receptacle, Marklane market!

"At the towns of Maidstone and Chatham, and all others

others on the coast, there are several hoys, carrying from three to five hundred quarters of corn each, which are continually going to London with the produce of the land, and returning with grocery, &c. for the supply of the country.

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The soil and climate of this county being better adapted to the growth of corn than of grass, no cheese or butter is made for exportation, nor a sufficient quantity for the consumption of the inhabitants; the deficiency, therefore, commerce supplies from other parts of the kingdom."

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SOCIETIES.P. 178. In January 1798, a Society for the encouragement of Agriculture and Industry, was established at Canterbury, under the patronage of Sir Edward Knatchbull, Bart. and Filmer Honeywood, Esq. the members for the county."

- P. 481: Some years since, a society was established at Maidstone, called the Kentish Society, for promoting every branch of useful knowledge through the county of Kent. This was begun under the patronage and support of the late Lord Romney, the Earl of Stanhope, and the present Lord Romney, then the Honourable Charles Marsham. Whether it was by aiming at too much, or from a want of support in subscriptions, that it fell to the ground; I am not competent to say.

"About a year ago, an attempt was made to establish another society at Maidstone, upon less general principles; but joining some other sciences with agriculture. There was a great number of the names of the first of the nobility, gentry, and yeomanry, who, by publie advertisement, called meetings at Maidstone, in order to settle the business; but either from want of a full attendance, or of subscrip tions, their efforts were not attended with the desired success?

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ESTATE

TENANTED ESTATES.

ISTATES.-P. 25. "The property in land in this county is very much divided, there being few extensive possessions but what are intersected by other person's property."

26 The number of yeomanry of this county seems

annually

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