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is grown, the great advantage, if not the absolute necessi☛ of a calcareous soil for this plant, is thoroughly and unive sally acknowledged."

In the calcareous districts in which this valuable crophy been long in cultivation, the necessity of a calcareous subsoil, to make it florish and endure, must have been know for ages past. But not so in the kingdom at large; where an impenetrable base, alone, was believed to be wanting, to secure its successful culture. I claim the credit, if a7 attach to it, of introducing the essential quality of sainfɔia land, to written agriculture. See my YORKSHIRE.

On sowing Trefoil Seed with that of Sainfoin.-P. 314. "There is considerable difference of opinion respecting the propriety and advantage of sowing trefoil with sainfoin this used formerly to be the general practice, but some of the most successful growers of sainfoin are decidedly averse to it."

In evidence of this assertion, however, the Reporter brings forward the subjoined incident.-P. 315. "The fol lowing circumstance decidedly proves the impropriety, or at least the inutility of sowing trefoil along with sainfoin. Mr. Birkbeck, of Wanborough, who cultivates sainfoin on a very extensive scale, had been always in the habit of sow. ing a certain proportion of trefoil along with it; but one year his servant, by mistake, omitted to sow the trefoil on a certain part of a field. The sainfoin on this part flourished much better, and reached to a greater perfection of growth and greater fulness of crop, than the sainfoin that was sown along with trefoil: hence Mr. Birkbeck justly concluded, that the latter might at least be considered as useless, if not as absolutely prejudicial, and therefore for the future he resolved to sow his sainfoin by itself."

But this single incident, unaccompanied by its attendant circumstances, cannot be allowed to be sufficient to set aside the established practice of an extent of country. I have observed the same practice in Hampshire.

That young sainfoin requires some assistance, to keep down noxious weeds, the first year of its growth and the spring of the second year, or to be clean hoed, as turneps, during the same time,-is to me evident, and indispensable to its accurate culture. But I do not think that trefoil is its best helpmate. I prefer the Kentish practice, of sowing red clover with it; especially within a farmer's day's journey from London; for a reason which will presently

appear.

Semination of Sainfoin.-P. 316. "Sainfoin has been sown both in autumn and in spring: the result of the ex

periments

tage, if not the periments is, that when sown rather early in spring, it is splant, is the found to answer best. The latter end of the month of March, or the beginning of April."-" It is sown with in which the barley much in the same manner as clover is; i. e. after the he necessit; barley has been harrowed once or twice, the sainfoin is sown, and the ground again lightly harrowed and rolled. As the seeds penetrate through the ground with some difficulty, it is of consequence not to bury it deep, and at the same time to make the ground fine and even.

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"Drilling. This is scarcely ever, if at all, practised in Surrey, though there are some advocates for it."

This conveys to me a new idea in the culture of sainfoin. I cannot, however, conceive it to be right to sow it "in rows at the distance of two or three feet"-as the Reporter suggests (p. 317);--but rather at fifteen inchesmore or less, according to the depth of the field of pastarage, and its intended application. If it be right, under any circumstances, to cultivate sainfoin, alore, it certainly might be kept clean, the first and second year, at less expence, in rows, than at random.

Making Sainfoin Hay.-P. 319. "As soon as ever the sainfoin is in full bloom, it is the proper season to cut it for hay this is in general done with scythes, with cradles or bows on them. It is suffered to lie in the swaths till it is nearly dried through, when it is carefully and regularly turned over with the handles of the rakes, or with large wooden forks*. If the weather prove favourable, it may then be put up in cocks, and carried the day after the swaths were turned. Great care must be taken not to over-make it. The perfection of sainfoin-hay is, when the blossom retains its natural bloom and figure, and when the stalks and leaves are of a clear and healthy green. It is easily spoilt by wet weather."

Application of Sainfoin.-P. 319. "It may be used from the stack, in three or four days after it is put up, if the crop is not very bulky. The best time for carrying it to market is before Christmas; both the quality and the price are then above what they will in general be, if it be kept till after the new year.

"Very few of the Surrey farmers, who are within 18 or 20 miles of London, consume their sainfoin-hay at home: those at a greater distance give it to their horses princiIt is in a very pally, and to their milch-cows and cattle. high degree grateful and nourishing to all kinds of stock.

In

* A long slender pole, somewhat crooked at the thicker or handle end, is the most convenient tool for that purpose0.

is grown, the great advantage, if not the absolute necessity of a calcareous soil for this plant, is thoroughly and univer sally acknowledged."

In the calcareous districts in which this valuable crop has been long in cultivation, the necessity of a calcareous subsoil, to make it florish and endure, must have been known for ages past. But not so in the kingdom at large; where an impenetrable base, alone, was believed to be wanting, to secure its successful culture. I claim the credit, if any attach to it, of introducing the essential quality of sainfoin land, to written agriculture. See my YORKSHIRE.

On sowing Trefoil Seed with that of Sainfoin.-P. 314. "There is considerable difference of opinion respecting the propriety and advantage of sowing trefoil with sainfoin this used formerly to be the general practice, but some of the most successful growers of sainfoin are decidedly averse to it."

In evidence of this assertion, however, the Reporter brings forward the subjoined incident.-P. 315. "The following circumstance decidedly proves the impropriety, or at least the inutility of sowing trefoil along with sainfoin. Mr. Birkbeck, of Wanborough, who cultivates sainfoin on a very extensive scale, had been always in the habit of sowing a certain proportion of trefoil along with it; but one year his servant, by mistake, omitted to sow the trefoil on a certain part of a field. The sainfoin on this part flourished much better, and reached to a greater perfection of growth and greater fulness of crop, than the sainfoin that was sown along with trefoil: hence Mr. Birkbeck justly concluded, that the latter might at least be considered as useless, if not as absolutely prejudicial, and therefore for the future he resolved to sow his sainfoin by itself."

But this single incident, unaccompanied by its attendant circumstances, cannot be allowed to be sufficient to set aside the established practice of an extent of country. I have observed the same practice in Hampshire.

That young sainfoin requires some assistance, to keep down noxious weeds, the first year of its growth and the spring of the second year, or to be clean hoed, as turneps, during the same time,-is to me evident, and indispensable to its accurate culture. But I do not think that trefoil is its best helpmate. I prefer the Kentish practice, of sowing red clover with it; especially within a farmer's day's journey from London; for a reason which will presently appear.

Semination of Sainfoin.-P. 316. " Sainfoin has been sown both in autumn and in spring: the result of the experiments

periments is, that when sown rather early in spring, it is found to answer best. The latter end of the month of March, or the beginning of April."" It is sown with barley much in the same manner as clover is; i. e. after the barley has been harrowed once or twice, the sainfoin is sown, and the ground again lightly harrowed and rolled. As the seeds penetrate through the ground with some difficulty, it is of consequence not to bury it deep, and at the same time to make the ground fine and even.

"Drilling.-This is scarcely ever, if at all, practised in Surrey, though there are some advocates for it."

This conveys to me a new idea in the culture of sainfoin. I cannot, however, conceive it to be right to sow it "in rows at the distance of two or three feet"-as the Reporter suggests (p. 317);-but rather at fifteen inchesmore or less, according to the depth of the field of pastarage, and its intended application. If it be right, under any circumstances, to cultivate sainfoin, alore, it certainly might be kept clean, the first and second year, at less expence, in rows, than at random.

Making Sainfoin Hay.-P. 319. "As soon as ever the sainfoin is in full bloom, it is the proper season to cut it for hay this is in general done with scythes, with cradles or bows on them. It is suffered to lie in the swaths till it is nearly dried through, when it is carefully and regularly turned over with the handles of the rakes, or with large wooden forks. If the weather prove favourable, it may then be put up in cocks, and carried the day after the swaths were turned. Great care must be taken not to over-make it. The perfection of sainfoin-hay is, when the blossom retains its natural bloom and figure, and when the stalks and leaves are of a clear and healthy green. It is easily spoilt by wet weather."

Application of Sainfoin.-P. 319. " It may be used from the stack, in three or four days after it is put up, if the crop is not very bulky. The best time for carrying it to market is before Christmas; both the quality and the price are then above what they will in general be, if it be kept till after the new year.

Very few of the Surrey farmers, who are within 18 or 20 miles of London, consume their sainfoin-hay at home: those at a greater distance give it to their horses principally, and to their milch-cows and cattle. It is in a very high degree grateful and nourishing to all kinds of stock. In

A long slender pole, somewhat crooked at the thicker or handle end, is the most convenient tool for that purpose.

In London, the hay always brings a better price than clovers i hay.”

P. 317. "The price of sainfoin hay depends in a great degree upon its being fine."-That is to say-slender stalked; not "coarse" or thick-stemmed. Hence, the closer the stems stand on the ground, the more saleable will be the hay. See the above remarks on drilling the crop. Also, those on sowing clover with sainfoin, instead of trefoil; which is less valuable as forage for horses.

Sainfoin Seed.-P. 320. "The management of sainfoin, when the seed is the principal object, is rather difficult. In the first place, the pods, as has been already remarked, fill, and the seeds ripen, at different times, according as they are placed at the bottom or top of the stalks; of course, it is almost impossible to hit the season when all the seeds are in a proper state of ripeness: and in the second place, the seed very easily falls out, if it meet with rain, or if it be. 1 roughly handle during the making.

When the husks are of a brownish colour, and the seeds feel plump and firm, it is then time to mow it: this is done by the most careful Surrey farmers, only when the dew is on the plants, or at least, not when the weather is either very windy or very dry, since the seeds are very apt to fall out, if the pod is parched by the sun, or the stalk shaken by the wind. The swaths are not turned, for the same reason, if they can be got sufficiently dry without it: when it is necessary to turn them, it is done as gently and carefully as possible, by putting the handle of the fork or rake below that part which contains least seed, while the bottom of the stalk, where the greatest quantity of seed is, rests on the ground, and is turned without being lifted from it. In a good year, and when proper care is taken to prevent the seed from falling out, four quarters per acre may be looked for."

Duration of Sainfoin, on the Surrey Hills.-P. 321.. "This seldom exceeds eight or ten years; at least, when it has stood so long, the broad or oat grass begins to smother it; and of course, not only does the crop become of comparatively little value, but if it is suffered to continue much longer, the ground gets very foul."

Renewal of the Sainfoin Crop.-P. 322. " The common opinion is, that sainfoin will not bear to be repeated on the same ground, till at least 15 or 20 years have elapsed,'

FROM this copious detail of valuable information, it appears that the practice of Surrey is peculiarly adapted to the raising of sainfoin hay, for the London market. Under this impression, the growers of it wish to fill their ground

as

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