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partly consumed by the stock of the grower, or let to such farmers as have not a sufficiency of feed. Turnips beyond the distance of fourteen miles, in Surrey at least, may be considered as grown for the winter feed of stock, unless in those parts of the county which border on the Thames: from these they are often brought in barges for the supply of the London markets, and for the use of the cowkeepers.

"Such turnips as are sold to the cow-keepers, or for the market, are of course drawn; but unless in these instances, it is by no means common to draw the turnips. They are, however, sometimes drawn and fed on an adjoining ley field, when the soil on which they are grown is wet."

The Value of the Turnep Crop, in Surrey.-P. 264. "When turnips are let to be folded off, it is either at so much per acre, or at so much per sheep for the week: about two guineas is the usual price per acre: when a particular field is uncommonly good, or the turnips in general have failed, three or four guineas have been given."

P. 265. "When turnips are sold to be drawn off the field, ten and twelve guineas per acre are very commonly given by the cow-feeders: where they are drawn and bunched for market, they will produce, at 2d. per gallon, 261. per acre; as they are, however, oftener sold for 4d. a gallon, the acre may fairly be reckoned worth 40%."

BULBOUS RAPE.-Its Introduction into Surrey.-P. 273. "A very few years ago, scarcely an acre of Swedish turnips were to be seen, except on the farms of some gentlemen; and now, there is scarcely a farmer who grows any considerable quantity of the common turnip, but what has also several acres of the Swedish."

The following comparison, between bulbous rape and turneps, is concisely and well drawn.-P. 275. "During the winter they are not considered as equal feeding to turnips: they are then harder, drier, and tougher; of course they are not so much relished: the cattle or sheep cannot fill themselves on them in so short a space of time, or with so little trouble as they can on the common turnip, and therefore will not fatten so kindly or so soon on them. In the spring, the advantage is decidedly in their favour : the turnips are then hard and stringy, or dry and spongy: while the ruta baga is in its perfection; more tender than it was in winter, and the juices more easily expressed."

Its general Application, in Surrey.-P. 275. " They come in for sheep-feed between the common turnip and the tares or grass. Some farmers give them to their work-horses, but this practice is by no means so common as it deserves to be. Moist food for work-horses is very much wanted

during the winter; and if every thing is taken into consideration, the Swedish turnip will be found the most convenient and advantageous."

"SIBERIAN TURNEP."-This is to me, in name at least, a new species of crop, in English agriculture. Is it the "Turneprooted Cabbage ;" or the " Kohl Rabi," or "Hungarian Turnep?"

P. 278. "For the following account of this vegetable, which has been successively cultivated by Mr. Pennington, of Lee Place, near Godstone, I am indebted to Mr. Salisbury, of the Botanic-garden, Brompton, who has witnessed the good properties of it, both at his friend Mr. Pennington's, and in his own garden."

"The Siberian turnip is a variety between the cabbage and turnip, but it differs from the Swedish turnip in growing to a larger size in the root, which is very sweet and nutritious, although equally hardy with the root of the Swedish turnip it is superior to this in one important point, as it produces a greater quantity of foliage in the spring. The tops of it branch into a great number of ramifications, and when full grown, it sometimes reaches the height of five feet, and covers a space five feet square."

This, I conceive, may be a sufficient notice to practical men, to try so promising a plant.

RAPE HERBAGE.-P. 268. "Mr. Birkbeck, of Wanborough, who cultivates a considerable extent of rape, puts his sheep upon it more early than is usually done: as they are suffered to go over the whole field, he finds that they eat the leaves that grow nearest the ground, and leave the others untouched till these are all consumed. As soon as he perceives that all the plants are deprived of the ground leaves, he takes his flock off the field. Two advantages result from this management: if these leaves were not eaten at that time, they would wither, and become useless : his sheep thus get more food from the rape than they otherwise would do, while at the same time, the other leaves of the rape are found to grow more rapidly and luxuriantly."

If this interesting information is really founded in mature experience, the incident that gave rise to it may well be considered as valuable. It is certainly entitled to trial, by the growers of rape herbage; which is a valuable species of fallow crop, on lands that are too tenacious for turneps.

MIXED HERBAGE.-The different species spoken of, in the Report before me, are red clover, white clover, trefoil, raygrass. What is said of the two following species is noticeable.

Red Clover.-P. 303. " Clover, as well as turnips, appears


to have been cultivated in Surrey for at least a century*. They were both most probably introduced, or recommended to the farmers, by Sir Richard Weston, of Sutton, who, about the middle of the seventeenth century, published an account of the husbandry of Flanders, where these crops at that time formed a regular and constant part of the rotation. However this may be, the breadth of ground in the arable part of the Downs and on the northern clays, sown with clover, as far back as an old man of 82 could remember, was not greater (nor the crop better, in his opinion) than what is now cultivated. It probably was later of finding its way into the Weald: at present, it it cultivated there to nearly as great an extent as in the other parts of the county. In the common fields, as might be expected, it is not often grown."

Trefoil.-P. 310. "It is a very common practice, to sow a few pounds of trefoil among the crop that immediately precedes the turnip or summer-fallow: by this means, at a very trifling expense, some good sheep-feed is obtained for the beginning of winter."

SAINFOIN. We are here entering on a valuable article of report.-Extent in Cultivation.-P. 311. "This plant is cultivated to a very considerable extent in Surrey; the management of it is in general well understood, the produce it affords is great, and the merits of it are duly prized. Its culture is upon the increase; and probably, if such a large proportion of the chalky hills were not continued under the natural herbage, the Downs would be entirely covered with it." (?) "As it is, extensive fields of it may be seen the whole breadth of the county, from the borders of Kent, at the eastern side, to the borders of Hampshire, on the western, near Farnham, covering with its valuable herbage large tracts of the chalky ridget.

Soil for Sainfoin.-P. 311. "From the experience of this, as well as of the other counties in England, where sainfoin


"From the following passage in Aubrey, clover appears to have been cultivated to a considerable extent at the time he wrote his History (about 1673). Speaking of Elsted, he says, In this parish, and the parts adjoining, clover-grass has reduced the price of meadow-hay from 31. to 1. per load.' Aubrey ascribes the introduction of clover to Sir Richard Weston, of Sutton, in this county, in 1645: he says, he brought it from Flanders or Brabant. It is probable, therefore, that Surrey was among the first, if not the very first district in England, into which this valuable grass was brought."

"The date of the introduction of this very valuable plant into Surrey, I cannot exactly ascertain, but from a passage quoted from Aubrey (in a note on the article Trefoil), it appears to have been well known in his time (1673)."

is grown, the great advantage, if not the absolute necessity of a calcareous soil for this plant, is thoroughly and univer sally acknowledged."

In the calcareous districts in which this valuable crop has been long in cultivation, the necessity of a calcareous subsoil, to make it florish and endure, must have been known for ages past. But not so in the kingdom at large; where an impenetrable base, alone, was believed to be wanting, to secure its successful culture. I claim the credit, if any attach to it, of introducing the essential quality of sainfoin land, to written agriculture. See my YORKSHIRE.

On sowing Trefoil Seed with that of Sainfoin.-P. 314. "There is considerable difference of opinion respecting the propriety and advantage of sowing trefoil with sainfoin this used formerly to be the general practice, but some of the most successful growers of sainfoin are decidedly averse to it."

In evidence of this assertion, however, the Reporter brings forward the subjoined incident.-P. 315. "The following circumstance decidedly proves the impropriety, or at least the inutility of sowing trefoil along with sainfoin. Mr. Birkbeck, of Wanborough, who cultivates sainfoin on a very extensive scale, had been always in the habit of sowing a certain proportion of trefoil along with it; but one year his servant, by mistake, omitted to sow the trefoil on a certain part of a field. The sainfoin on this part flourished much better, and reached to a greater perfection of growth and greater fulness of crop, than the sainfoin that was sown along with trefoil: hence Mr. Birkbeck justly concluded, that the latter might at least be considered as useless, if not as absolutely prejudicial, and therefore for the future he resolved to sow his sainfoin by itself."

But this single incident, unaccompanied by its attendant circumstances, cannot be allowed to be sufficient to set aside the established practice of an extent of country. I have observed the same practice in Hampshire.

That young sainfoin requires some assistance, to keep down noxious weeds, the first year of its growth and the spring of the second year, or to be clean hoed, as turneps, during the same time,-is to me evident, and indispensable to its accurate culture. But I do not think that trefoil is its best helpmate. I prefer the Kentish practice, of sowing red clover with it; especially within a farmer's day's journey from London; for a reason which will presently appear.

Semination of Sainfoin.-P. 316. "Sainfoin has been sown both in autumn and in spring: the result of the experiments

periments is, that when sown rather early in spring, it is found to answer best. The latter end of the month of March, or the beginning of April."-" It is sown with barley much in the same manner as clover is; i. e. after the barley has been harrowed once or twice, the sainfoin is sown, and the ground again lightly harrowed and rolled. As the seeds penetrate through the ground with some difficulty, it is of consequence not to bury it deep, and at the same time to make the ground fine and even.

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Drilling. This is scarcely ever, if at all, practised in Surrey, though there are some advocates for it."

This conveys to me a new idea in the culture of sainfoin. I cannot, however, conceive it to be right to sow it "in rows at the distance of two or three feet"-2 -as the Reporter suggests (p. 317);-but rather at fifteen inchesmore or less,--according to the depth of the field of pastarage, and its intended application. If it be right, under any circumstances, to cultivate sainfoin, alore, it certainly might be kept clean, the first and second year, at less expence, in rows, than at random.

Making Sainfoin Hay.-P. 319. "As soon as ever the sainfoin is in full bloom, it is the proper season to cut it for hay this is in general done with scythes, with cradles or bows on them. It is suffered to lie in the swaths till it is nearly dried through, when it is carefully and regularly turned over with the handles of the rakes, or with large wooden forks. If the weather prove favourable, it may then be put up in cocks, and carried the day after the swaths were turned. Great care must be taken not to over-make it. The perfection of sainfoin-hay is, when the blossom retains its natural bloom and figure, and when the stalks and leaves are of a clear and healthy green. It is easily spoilt by wet weather."

Application of Sainfoin.-P. 319. "It may be used from the stack, in three or four days after it is put up, if the crop is not very bulky. The best time for carrying it to market is before Christmas; both the quality and the price are then above what they will in general be, if it be kept till after the new year.

"Very few of the Surrey farmers, who are within 18 or 20 miles of London, consume their sainfoin-hay at home: those at a greater distance give it to their horses principally, and to their milch-cows and cattle. It is in a very high degree grateful and nourishing to all kinds of stock.


* A long slender pole, somewhat crooked at the thicker or handle end, is the most convenient tool for that purpose.

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