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P. 514. "In the management of their composts, the Surrey farmers are very careful and skilful, as well as economical in the materials of which they compose them. The scrapings of the roads, the scourings of the ditches or ponds, the superabundant mould of the head-lands, are carefully collected and mixed up, either with the rich manure from London, with the farm-yard manure, or with chalk, and often with them all.”

Herbaceous Manure.-P. 508. "Ploughing in green crops is not now much in use in Surrey: to feed them off on the ground is found to benefit the succeeding crop much more, and to be much less troublesome and expensive. In some parts of the county, however, tares, and occasionally buck-wheat and rape are ploughed in; and I met with one instance in the neighbourhood of Guildford, where a very strong and luxuriant crop of charlock was ploughing in on a thin light soil upon chalk, for wheat."

To those who have read, with attention, the above intelligent notices, concerning the manures in use, in the County of Surrey, it were superfluous to remark that Mr. Stevenson's report of them is mostly satisfactory.

SEMINATION.-Drilling.-P. 157. "The drill husbandry can hardly be said to be extending itself, even in that part of Surrey where it it has been practised for some years. It appears to have been introduced, or at least recommended, to the notice of the farmers on the sandy loams in the western division of the county, by the late Mr. Ducket, of Esher, who is well known to have been a strong advocate for drilling all sorts of grain, to have followed it extensively on his own farm, and to have invented many machines for drilling and hoeing the crops.

"At present, the drill husbandry is almost entirely confined to the parishes of Bagshot, Chobham, Ockham, Cobham, Esher, Send, Ripley, Bramley, and the district immediately adjoining, and is seldom practised, except on light loams, or sandy soils. It does not appear to have established itself generally in any part of Surrey to the eastward of these parishes."


WHEAT. This important object of husbandry is treated of analytically, and at an irrequisite length. It is too long, I mean to say, as a report of the practice of a County, and too short as a general treatise on the culture of wheat.

Reasons for its Cultivation, in Surrey.-P. 202. "There are several circumstances, which render the cultivation of wheat in Surrey more general and extensive than it is in


many other counties. In the first place, the soil of the Weald, or vale land, which forms no inconsiderable proportion of the county, is of such a nature as to require frequent summer-fallowing: where this is necessary, the farmer must have recourse to wheat, in order to pay him for the want of a crop, and for the great expense that he has incurred,; and as lands which most require a summer-fallow, viz. strong wet clay, are peculiarly adapted for wheat, the farmer is led also by this consideration to sow this grain very extensively. In the second place, the general rotation on the light lands brings in a crop of clover after turnips and barley, and of course these lands, which were long deemed unsuitable for wheat, by receiving this crop on a clover-ley, are found to be as productive of this valuable grain as soils of a stronger class. Lastly, the great command of manure which that part of Surrey that lies near the metropolis or the Thames possesses; and the cheapness of chalk and lime in the other parts of the county, no doubt, induce the farmers to introduce a wheat crop more frequently than they would do if they were not possessed of these advantages."

Extent in Cultivation.-P. 203. "What the extent of land annually under wheat amounts to, it is impossible to ascertain; and on this, as well as on other topics where there are no grounds for forming a statement or opinion, I shall not hazard a random, a useless, and perhaps worse than useless conjecture."-This is a sound principle of report.

Succession of Wheat.-P. 203. "Wheat in Surrey follows, 1. a complete summer-fallow; 2. a bastard-fallow after tarcs, clover-ley, or woad" (Weld); "3. beans or pease; 4. clover-ley; 5. turnips; and sometimes, but very seldom, it follows oats:"-and, p. 205, "is seldom sown after turneps."

Manure for Wheat.-P. 206. " In the Weald, stable and yard dung, and lime, are used for the summer-fallow on the clays in the other parts of the county, the same kind of manure, and lime or chalk, are used; though, as has been already remarked, these clays get by no means their proportion of manure. Sheep are folded on the fallows in some parts, especially where there is a portion of Downs attached to the farm. Five hundred sheep will manure an acre in about seven days. Clover-leys are sometimes manured in the spring; sometimes in the autumn, just before they are ploughed; and sometimes, instead of manure being spread upon them, sheep are folded on them, either before they are ploughed or afterwards."

Semination of Wheat.-Time of Sowing.-P. 206. "The

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usual months for the wheat seed-time are October and November: in some parts of the county, and in some seasons, a considerable part of the wheat is put in during the month of September."

Methods of Sowing.-P. 207. "Drilling wheat is not much followed; it is to be met with chiefly in the western parts of the county, about Bagshot, Send, Chobham, Ripley, &c. and on one or two farms in the south-eastern part."

"Wheat is either sown broad-cast on the furrow; sown, and then ploughed in; or drilled. On clay land, the practice of ploughing the wheat in, or sowing under furrow, is gaining ground."

We are not informed whether the "drilling," which is practised in those parishes, is done according to Mr. Ducket's plan, or the seed is passed through a machine.

Produce of Wheat.-P. 216. "The smallest crops of wheat I heard of did not exceed four sacks, or two quarters" (Winchester measure): " and on the other band, when a particular field or district was meant to be recommended as peculiarly qualified for wheat, the usual expression was, that it generally produced a load, or five quarters of wheat. On the rich, deep, friable, calcareous loams, near the northern extremity of the chalk-hills, between Croydon and Epsom, six quarters have been grown not unfrequently. On the rich sandy loams near Godalming, a load or five quarters is no uncommon crop: but on the other hand, on the colder soils, the crop seldom exceeds five or six sacks, or two and a half or three quarters. In the Weald, this may fairly be deemed the common crop, except on the drier and richer spots, which not unfrequently produce a load per acre. On the black-land' the crops of wheat are sometimes very great: but it seems the general opinion in Surrey, that the calcareous, and even the sandy loams, if they be deep and rich, produce not only greater quantities of wheat per acre, than the best clay soils, but also grain of a superior quality."


RYE. The subjoined concise, yet intelligent, account of the culture of this crop, in Surrey, I insert here with pleasure.

P. 221. "This grain is seldom sown in Surrey, except for spring-feed for sheep, or for seed. It commonly is put into ground intended for turnips, or summer-fallow, about the end of August, or beginning of September, The quantity of seed is about three bushels: when it is suffered to stand, it ripens about the 12th or 14th of July: the produce runs from three quarters to four quarters and a half per acre: the weight of the bushel is from 56 to 601b. The straw,

which is principally bought by the brick-makers, fetches from 508. to 31. per load. As green food, it comes in before the winter-tares. Before it begins to shoot up, it is very acceptable and nourishing to sheep; but they dislike it afterwards."

BARLEY.-P. 221. "As it is a very common opinion in Surrey, that barley will not thrive well on clay soils, and as these soils, if they were to be prepared for barley, would require a great deal of time and labour to bring them into proper tilth, the quantity of this grain sown in this county is not very considerable. It is almost entirely excluded from the Weald, and from the stronger soils in the other parts of the county: even soils that are sown with turnips, if they be of a strong nature, are seldom prepared for barley after the turnip crop is eaten off; so that this grain may be considered as confined to the lighter and drier turnip soils to the calcareous and sandy loams. I heard of one instance, in which, this year (1807), it had been sown on theblack-land,' below Mestham. The crop was remarkable, producing, it was said, three loads per acre: the straw very long, and so firm and strong, as not to be the least lodged, even though the crop was so very abundant."

PEAS.-Semination.-P. 231. "Pease are generally drilled about Guildford-in other parts of the county, they are mostly sown broad-cast. Dibbling used formerly to be practised, but it has given way to the practice of drilling. Where they are sown broad-cast, it is considered the better way to plough them in with a shallow furrow, and afterwards to harrow the ground lightly."

Produce of Peas.-P. 232. "In favourable seasons, the crop will run from three to five quarters. It is observable, that calcareous soils are more favourable to the growth of this crop, than soils which have no chalk or lime in their composition. On some of the calcareous ground, even where it lay high and exposed, I was informed that from ten to twelve sacks (five to six quarters) were frequently got."This is an extraordinary produce.

WELD*.-P. 383. "Woad is sown on the chalk-hills in the neighbourhood of Banstead Downs, where it is found to answer remarkably well. The soil best adapted for it is a thin, and rather poor, chalky loam: it grows too strong on good land.

"It is generally sown along with a crop of barley, on land which has had the preparation of a summer-fallow.


Mr. Stevenson has misnamed the plant he was treating of. The material of dying, which is cultivated on the hills of Surrey, is not Isatis Tinctoria, or Woad; but Reseda Luteola, or Weld.

In order to separate the seed, and to scatter it more evenly over the surface, it is usual to mix it with ashes: rather less than a pint is allowed to the acre.

"There are two important circumstances which recommend the cultivation of this plant.

"In the first place, it is found to be a very good preparation for wheat" (?)" on the thin soils, where it is commonly grown; and

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Secondly, as it is ripe very early in the summer, it can be sold, and the money for it got in time to help to pay the expense of the corn harvest.

"It is generally ripe in July, when it is pulled and bunched."

What I recollect of the Banstead practice, in regard to this crop, is, that it was chiefly grown among clover; which, in the spring, before the dyer's weed begins to run up to seed, sheep will pasture upon, without injury to the weld; which is less palatable to them. Weld raised in this way frequently becomes a profitable crop to a tenant; but not so, I apprehend, to a proprietor; as the entire produce is carried off the land.

TURNEPS.-Their Introduction into Surrey.-P. 243. "As far back as the memory of one of the oldest labourers in Surrey would enable me to trace, I found that turnips bad been cultivated in his neighbourhood (about Cheam and Ewel), nearly to as great an extent, and in his opinion, with at least as much success as they are now."

The Reporter has extended his section, concerning this crop, to twentyfour pages; but without producing much practical information. A considerable part of the section is taken up with discussing the controversial point of whether the row or the random culture is preferable.Having already spoken my sentiments, fully, on that point, in reviewing the Report from Northumberland (the proper County in which to discuss it) I pass it, here, without further notice.

Perceiving nothing of novelty, nor of excellence, in this report of the practice of Surrey, concerning the cultivation of turneps, I proceed to their

Application, there.-P. 260. "The purposes to which turnips are applied, depend in a great measure on the distance of the farm from the metropolis; and in some respects, on the nature of the soil on which they are


"The greatest part of those in the immediate vicinity of London, go to the supply of Covent Garden and the other markets: those at the distance of twelve or fourteen miles are partly bought by the great cow-keepers, and


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