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that the wide-spread woodlands, which it evidently once contained, formed the last, of the forests of England, which reached the agricultural state.

In traversing its site, I saw the remains of some of its posts; which, tradition said, formerly stood across it," as guides to letter carriers," and doubtlessly to other travellers. Other wide forests, it is probable were supplied with similar helps. And hence, possibly the expression of sending letters by the post (a contraction of posts) at this day.

COPPICE WOODS.-Species.-P. 426. "These consist principally of the oak, birch, ash, chesnut, sallow, hazel, and alder."

Filling up Coppice Grounds.-P. 427. "This is done by cutting the shoot about half through with a bill: the shoot thus cut is laid along the ground; at each of the joints a cut in the direction of the bough is made, over which a little fine mould and turf are laid; the shoot is kept close to the ground by means of pegs. At each point, the shoot that is plashed will take root, and throw out several saplings. As soon as the shoot that has been plashed appears to have taken sufficient root in each of its points (which generally happens in two or three years), it is entirely separated from the parent stool."

This valuable practice I have observed. For filling up small vacancies, with the native woods that happen to grow on their immediate margins, the practice is highly eligible. But where the vacant plots are large, and especially when more valuable woods are desired, the Kentish practice of sodburning the surface, and digging the ground as for a plantation,-is required.

The wares of coppice woods, in Surrey, are the same as in Sussex.-P. 429. "The following are the principal purposes to which copse-wood is applied, arranged according to the comparative profit they bring :-Hoops; gunpowder charcoal; charcoal for other purposes; poles of the largest size, for hop-plantations; hurdles; faggots; kiln-faggots."

P. 435. "The woodlands in the other parts of Surrey contain, in general, a greater proportion of coppice, and fewer timber trees, than those we have been considering in the Weald: this is more particularly the case on the chalk-hills of the county. The kinds of wood in the coppices are much the same as in the Weald: the uses to which they are applied are also similar, except that charcoal is much more frequently made from the underwoods of the Weald, than from those of the other parts of the county. Stakes, edders, hurdles, hoops, and faggots, are the principal products of the copse-woods now under consideration.

consideration. As we approach the metropolis, the underwoods are cut at much shorter periods than at a greater distance from seven to ten years is the usual age of felling, at the distance of 15 or 20 miles from London.

"Besides the coppice that grows along with the timber, there are in most parts of the chalk-hills what are deno minated shaws:' these are small spots of copse-wood, unmixed with timber. They are found to be very advantageous while growing, as shelter for the sheep; and are used, when cut down, for hurdles, &c."

WOODS.-Draining.-P. 437. "The most commendable part of the management of the woodmen in the Weald of Surrey, is that which respects the draining their woods: the soil is so retentive, and the surface so inadequate to carry the water off, that this practice seems to have forced itself in a manner, upon their notice and adoption, as the only method of preserving their woods from destruction: and from the great and evident good effects produced by keeping the surface dry, under-draining has been employed, with results equally beneficial, in many parts of the Weald,"

Raising Woods.-P. 438. "By some of the most experienced and successful woodmen of the Weald, the following method is pursued. The field in which it is intended to sow the acorns, is completely summer-fallowed; and during this operation it is thoroughly cleaned of all root-weeds, and has a good dressing of manure and sometimes of lime given it. At the last ploughing it is ridged up so as to keep it as dry as possible during the winter. Wheat is then sown in it at the usual season; and after the wheat is well harrowed in, acorns are put in with a dibble, at about one foot distant from each other. When the wheat is reaped the ensuing autumn, the seedling oaks are not sufficiently high to be cut or injured by the sickle; the stubble serves as a kind of protection to them during the winter."

Sowing the acorns at the same time the wheat is sown, and harrowing them in, together, is much preferable to dibbling them in; especially on a tough retentive soil, such as the oak delights in. The holes formed by the dibbles are liable to hold water, and thereby to rot the acorns; which can scarcely be deposited too loosely and shallow in the ground.

Mr. S. touches on the disputed subject of whether oaks should be raised from the seed, or be transplanted; and quotes (p. 439.) what he considers as a case in point,in favour of planting. But the case quoted proves nothing. The seedlings, that sprang up in the wood, among the

interwoven

interwoven roots of timber trees and underwoods, had almost insuperable difficulties to struggle with, while those which were planted, " by a man who took great delight in planting," had, from their infancy, the entire ground to themselves. The quoter should have recollected, before he wrote, that the quotee was a planter.

Box of Boxhill.-P. 445. " Bor.-This is known only as a dwarf, or garden shrub, in most parts of England: in Surrey, and the adjoining county of Kent, however, it flourishes as a tree of considerable size. The hill in Surrey on which it is found, was originally called the Whitehill" (?); "but from the great number of box-trees with which it has long been covered, it is now much better known by the name of Box-bill.

"The common report, probably handed down by tradition, is, that the Earl of Arundel, in the reign of Charles I. brought the box-tree from Kent, and planted it on the White-hill*.

"The soil of Box-hill is a thin pale-coloured loam, lying very near the chalk: the elevation of the hill is considerable, and the greatest quantity of box is found on the south or precipitous side.

"The period of time required by the box-tree to arrive at a proper size and quality of timber for cutting, is not exactly known; but it is supposed, that more than half a century is necessary for this purpose. The succession of the crop is kept up, partly by the seeds which are annually scattered, and partly by the shoots from the stools, after the timber is cut.

"The price of this wood was formerly much higher than it is now: this is owing, in some measure, to the diminished demand, and the importation from Holland and other parts. of the Continent; but principally, to the greater quantity which has latterly been cut on Box-hill. The former proprietor of the estate sold the box for 15,000l.: the purchaser was to be allowed 14 years to cut it down: hence the supply has been much greater than formerly; and as, while it was scarce and dear, substitutes had been found for it in many manufactures, the price has necessarily declined very considerably. In the 1802, 40 tons were cut on Box-hill; and when the limited use to which

this

«* Mr. Manning, author of the History of Surrey, is of opinion, that the box on Box-hill is coeval with the soil;" (?) "it can actually be traced back to the beginning of the seventeenth century: in a lease dated 1602, the tenant covenants to use his best endeavours to preserve the yew, box, &c. In an account taken in 1712, it is supposed as much had been cut a few years before, as amounted to 3000%."

this wood can be applied, is considered, it is by no means surprising that the price should have fallen more than 50 per cent. It will not now bring more than 5l. or 61. per ton."

FARMS.

AGRICULTURE.

ARMS.-Sizes.-P. 84. "The Weald of Surrey offers less variety in the size of its farms than any other part of the county; and the further we advance into the Weald, and recede from good roads and a dry soil, the smaller the farms in general become. There are scarcely any farms in this part of the county which reach 300 acres; most of them run from 100 to 150, and the smallest do not contain more than 40 or 50 acres.

"The size of the farms on the sandy loams is also small in general, running from 100 to 300 acres: a few falling below the first number, and perhaps a very few rising above 300 acres.

"In the western parts of the county, about Bagshot and Cobham, there are scarcely any farms above 200 acres; and in general they run from 150 to 200 acres.

"On the borders of the Downs there are a few very large farms, i. e. farms from 600 to 1200 acres. Within seven or eight miles of London also, especially about Streatham and Norwood, there are some farms of from 500 to 700 acres and upwards. But the usual size, both in the Downs and within seven or eight miles of London, is from 250 to 300 acres. Nearer London, the ground is in the hands of market-gardens and nurserymen, and of course is held in small quantities.

"The largest farm in the county is at Wanborough, between Guildford and Farnham: it contains 1600 acres, comprising a considerable quantity of chalky soil, on that part of the ridge, which from its appearance, is called "The Hog's Back." It is in the possession of Mr. Morris Birk-, beck, whose activity and intelligence are fully equal to the proper management of this large concern."

HOMESTEADS.-P. 79. "In passing to the Vale or Weald of Surrey, the eye is not more struck with the appearance of inferiority in the management of the lands, the badness of the crops, the uncouthness and want of intelligence among the farmers, and the general circumstances attending inadequate skill and capital-than it is with the rumous and mean appearance of the farm-houses and offices. In the other parts of the county, the farm-houses are generally sufficiently

large

large and convenient, in good repair, and kept neat and clean: their size, and the mode and materials of their construction, vary with their age. The oldest are built entirely of brick, and their covering is generally of large heavy slatestone; others are of brick-nogging, covered with tiles; and many are built of a framing of wood, lathed and plastered, or rough-cast."

OBJECTS of HUSBANDRY.-P. 146. "In the neighbourhood of large towns, little arable land, in general, is to be seen; and this is the case on the Middlesex side of London: but in Surrey, on the contrary, the proportion of arable land is very great, all over the county; and this proportion hardly seems to diminish as we approach the metropolis."

PLAN of MANAGEMENT.-The Reporter has extended his section" Course of Crops" to an unwarrantable length; seeing how little it contains, respecting the established practice of the County under Report. It commences with a discourse concerning the author's own ideas of the subject; a dissertation, by the way, which does him credit as a writer. He next enumerates, a la Secretaire, strings of courses, on the several varieties of lands in the County, as they were found on the farms of individuals; in all or most cases putting down what may be well termed, in ordinary situations, the impracticable course.

Having past over nearly twenty pages of the section, we come to the following ingenuous notice.-P. 196. " Before proceeding to state the rotations pursued in the different parts of Surrey, that go against the fundamental maxim of agriculture, by bringing two white or corn crops immediately together, it is proper to premise, that the rotations already mentioned, are by no means the most common in the several districts where they are said to be followed. There is perhaps, a greater variety of rules and practices, even within the compass of a single parish in Surrey (if the Weald be excepted), than in most of the other counties in England: so that the practices adopted by one farmer are frequently very different from those of his nearest neighbour. The judicious and commendable rotations already noticed, are to be found in a more or less extensive degree, in the several districts specified along with them, and there is good reason to believe they are becoming more prevalent; but whoever from this account should expect to find that practices directly opposite were banished from these districts, would be much disappointed."

The fact is, the County of Surrey has-had some years ago-NO REGULAR COURSE OF CROPS; every occupier appropriated his fields and parcels of lands to the purposes to which he knew they were best adapted. And, by the.

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