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"The Redbridge and Andover Canal affords considerable advantage to the interior country, by bringing to it the foreign supplies of the most heavy and bulky nature it may require, and facilitating the surplus of its agricultural produce to market; yet along the valley of the Teste many inconveniencies were witnessed by the penning of the water, to the injury of the low grounds through which the canal passes. From Redbridge there is a branch of this canal which connects immediately with Southampton; a collateral branch also proceeds up the valley between East Dean, Leskerley, and East Tytherley, which is navigable to Alderbury Common, and within two miles of Salisbury.
"The Winchester and Southampton Canal is perhaps one of the most ancient in the kingdom. The act for constructing this canal was obtained in the reign of Charles the First, but from the want of a suitable trade upon it, however advantageous to the city of Winchester and the surrounding country, it does not seem to have answered the expectations of the first adventurers; the same, indeed, may be stated of the Andover Canal, which is not supposed to have paid one shilling to the proprietors since its first establishment, now about nine years ago."
ROADS.-Parish Roads.-P. 391. "In general, good; some, the very best in the kingdom. To this general statement some exception must be made to parish roads, whether in the woodlands or the more open parts of the county. In the former situation their indifferent state may be more justly ascribed to their narrowness, and being overshaded with trees, than to any want of good and sufficient materials to make and repair them.
"In the chalk district, the quarters of the parish roads are found so very high, and the ruts so deep, as to render it no less difficult than dangerous for loaded carriages to turn out of them."
P. 392. "Nothing can possibly exceed the goodness of the roads through the New Forest, and the southern parts of the county. It is no less true than strange, to say that the traveller may pass from Lymington to Christchurch, and thence to Salisbury, without a turnpike, and all the way upon parochial roads, which may vie for goodness with the best turnpikes in the kingdom. Neither are there turnpikes in the Isle of Wight."
Toll Roads.-P. 392. "The public or turnpike roads are, however, no where better than what may generally be met with in Hampshire: materials of an excellent quality are to be had in most situations."
Wheel Carriages.-While the Reporter is suggesting "Improvements"
"Improvements" (in a chapter appropriated to that purpose) he proposes the following regulation. P, 504. One thing seems indispensably required for the public accommodation, but this is only to be obtained by legislative authority; it is that of fixing upon one standard width for the track of all waggons, carts, and pleasurable carriages and to ordain, that all wheel carriages, wheresoever made in the island of Great Britain, whether designed for business or pleasure, after a certain time should be made and constructed agreeably thereto."
In by roads, already deeply rutted, such a regulation would be greatly advantageous; especially to gentlemen who travel, with sober pace, over the island at large, in their own carriages; no matter whether they move on four wheels or only two... But on wide barrel roads, such a restriction would be mischievous; inasmuch as it could not fail to form ruts,-which are the greatest evil of roads of that description." "Turnpike Roads" require a diversity, rather than a unity of span;-in order to prevent ruts, as much as may be, and thereby to render their entire surfaces equally travelable*.
MARKETS. P. 395." Within the county, and at no great distance from its eastern and western borders, there are some of the best corn and cattle markets in the kingdom. These places generally afford opportunities for obtaining: the best times price for all sort of agricultural produce, and at the same time exhibit assortments of manufactured goods, in all the variety of home or foreign taste, for do y mestic consumption.".
The Reporter next proceeds to open his topographicopolitical chapter ;-which is thus entitled:-p. 396." Pot litical character of the principal towns in this district, seat, and circumstances of manufactures and commerce, fisheries, agricultural societies, &c.:"with such irrelevant materials (chiefly) filling fifty pages!
Those miscellaneous matters, with many others, are treated of, districtwise—the several market towns of the County being separately brought forward, according to their situations within the outlines of the Reporter's Districts The following are among the favorite topics of attention, bes The locality of the town under consideration.
And the four-in-hand man,-the fast-driving Jehu,-would have i an insoperable objection to the Reporter's plan. He delights in a narrow span, and a high seat, to give life to his vehicle-to give it action and lightness of motion-thereby to avoid, or easily to overcome, many obstructions," which a wide-span carriage, for the want of lateral motion, has to surmount.
Its ancient name or names.
The etymon of its modern appellation.
Its public buildings and other works.
Any thing curious or surprising, which it can claim as its own.
Its municipal relations; if it has any.
Its body corporate.
The members it sends to Parliament.
The qualification of the voters.
Now, to many or most men of leisure and general enquiry, those topics, when duly handied, are capable of affording much entertainment; and I have the pleasure of informing that class of readers, that the work I am now speaking of is respectably done.-But it really is neither decorous, nor fair, for a professed writer on agriculture to trespass, thus openly, on the neighbouring field of topography; seeing how many industrious men there are who, at present, are working, hard perhaps, in that their own field of literature.
I trust, however, the author, notwithstanding the above mitigated remarks, will accept my thanks for one portion of his ample and mostly interesting information: namely, that which describes the Seawater Saltworks of Lymington: a subject that was entirely new to me. Formerly, it appears "saltings" were prevalent on the southern shores of this island. SOCIETIES
*Those works, being appendant to landed property, I here insert a short extract, from Mr V.'s lengthened account, to convey a general idea of the process.
P. 420. The manufactures for which Lymington is most noted, are those of culinary and medicinal salts from sea water. This business is pursued much less now than formerly, but still carried on to some considerable extent, particularly by one gentleman, Mr St. Barbe, who very obligingly favoured the Surveyor with the following, as well as much other useful information.
"The salt works at Lymington, formerly very extensive, are perhaps equal to any marine manufactory of that kind in the kingdom. The sea water is first admitted into feeding ponds, from whence it flows into levels, in which there are partitions, forming pans, as they are called, of from twenty to thirty square perches each: these receive the sea water from the feeding ponds to the depth of about three inches, and from which it passes from the higher to the lower pans, exposed to the action of the sun and wind, until the brine becomes of a sufficient strength to be pumped up by small wind engines into a cistern, whence it is conveyed by troughs into the respective iron
SOCIETIES of Agriculture.-P. 398. "An Agricultural Society was established at Odiham in the year 1783; but of late years the objects of this institution appear to have been little attended to." See p. 291, aforegoing.
SUBJECT THE THIRD.
STATES.-P. 51. "The largest estates, as well as the most extensive occupations, are found in the chalky parts of this county. The highest individual rental of lands lying within the county, was not understood to exceed 8000l. per annum. Much of the land in the county has undergone a transfer of late years from its former owners, and in which have been included some very large and valuable estates. A considerable subdivision of property has also taken place."
TENURES.-P. 53. "Tenures are various. Those estates which are supposed to have formerly composed a part of the demesne lands of the see of Winchester, are granted by the Bishop as freeholds, for, or upon three lives, and generally renewed to the families in possession for many successive generations. The fine or renewal varies, from one and a half to one and three quarters, and two years improved rent, valued by competent persons in the vicinity. These estates chiefly consist of ancient manor farms and houses, and to which certain feudal rights still appertain. In some cases, the timber on these estates has been reserved to the use of the see, allowing only a sufficiency for repairs, with the bark, top, and lop, of the same; in others, the whole was originally relinquished
pans for boiling. The ordinary size of these boiling pans is about 8 feet 6 inches square, and about 11 inches deep, but of which depth about 8 inches only is filled with brine, which is kept gently simmering until the last hour, when the heat is much augmented, for the purpose of drying the salt, which has been all along forming on the surface of the brine, and falling through it to the bottom of the pan, thus gradually diminishing the brine in the pan at the rate of about half an inch per hour.
"The extent of ground required for evaporation, exclusive of the feeding ponds and cistern, is about three roods, or 120 perches to each pan."
quished to the tenant family, who consider these estates as tenancies for life, renewable for ever on the terms above stated.
"Copyhold tenures, or lands held by copy of court roll, are granted from manors vested in the church, other pious foundations held in mortmain, and the nobility, gentry, and lay proprietors of the county. They are of several kinds, such as copyholds of inheritance, with a fine small and certain on alienation or death, customary, which refers to the usage of the manor, whether the fine on such occasions is paid by heriots, or commuted for a former specific sum, or arbitrary, and which latter often involves the tenant in a situation he by no means approves of: these tenures are granted by the Bishop of Winchester, the Dean and Chapter, the Warden of Winchester College, the colleges of the respective universities, other public and private bodies, and nearly in the following manner:
"A valuation of the net annual rent of the estate is made, and upon that data, two years' purchase is demanded for one life, with the benefit of widowhood; eight years for two lives, with the benefit of widowhood; sixteen years for three lives, with the benefit of widowhood.
"Leaseholds, or lands held on lives by lease or indenture, also derived from the preceding sources, and which upon renewal, the net annual value being previously ascertained, pay two years purchase for one life, seven years for two lives, fourteen years for three lives, with a small annual reserved rent, which varies according to circumstances, but is generally considered to apply a just equivalent to both parties.
"Leases for terms of years are also granted by the aforesaid authorities; these are generally for 21 years, renewable every seven, with a fine of from one and a quarter to one and a half yearly value."
P. 61. "In the Isle of Wight the great bulk of the land is freehold. The copyholds chiefly consist of small tenements; and although the College of Winchester, and New College, Oxford, have some property near the middle of the island, it does not appear that there are any church demesnes upon it. The largest individual income accruing from lands in the island, is not supposed to exceed 50001. per acre. Leases for 14 and 21 years absolute, have been very judiciously granted of some of the principal occupations in the island; and with regard to other species of tenure, they may be generally referred to what has been already stated on those subjects with regard to the county at large."
DRAINING Estates.-A good deal is said on this subject;