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It is, however, too valuable a part of the volume, to be passed by, without due consideration.-I will first copy the whole of the brief sketches which accompany "Climate," and then extract, from the detailed account, in the section, "Soil," some interesting particulars, relating to the two principal divisions of the County.
"District 1. "(namely, the northern margin of the County, bordering on and uniting with, the lands of Berkshire and Surrey.) P. 8. "Woodlands and the wastes of Bagshot, clay, sand, gravel, and peat; the last found upon the wastes and in some of the enclosed low grounds."
"District 2."-(the Chalk Hills.) P. 8. "Strong flinty loams and hazel-coloured mould on chalk, occasionally veined with gravel: more or less peat in most of the vallies."
"District 3."-(the eastern margin of the Chalk Hills, uniting with the light barren lands of Surrey and Sussex.)—— P. 9. Malm, sand, and gravelly loam, clay and peat: the latter found chiefly upon the wastes; also in Woolmer and in Alice Holt forests."
"District 4."-(the New Forests and its environs.) P. 9. "Light sand and gravelly loams, intermixed with clay and brick-earth on substrata of argillaceous and calcareous marl. Much peat and turf moor prevailing on the heath and low grounds, particularly in the forest of Bere, Waltham Chase, and New Forest."
"District 5."-(the Portsmouth quarter of the County.) -P. 9. "Chalk of Portsdown, and the islands of Portsea and Haling, a strong flinty, and a tender hazel-coloured loam, prevailing in the islands and low grounds."
"District 6."-(certain marginal lands of the Isle of Wight, lying principally on its northern shores, but partly along its southern coast.)-P. 10. "North and south borders of the Isle of Wight, rough strong clay, argillaceous and calcareous marl."
"Districts 7 and 8."-(the interior or main area of the Isle of Wight, which comprizes soils of almost every description.)-P. 10. "Tender, red sand, and gravelly loam, with argillaceous and calcareous marl, chalk, and its usual accompaniments, red loam and flints."-We now enter upon the
Soils of the Chalk Hills of Hampshire.-P. 15. " Notwithstanding the uniformity prevailing in the internal composition or structure of this district, which chiefly consists of a firm unbroken bed of rock chalk, its soil or surface covering is so much varied and blended with each other, as to require much attention to the describing of it in such a manner as to make all its varieties clearly and distinctly understood.
The first of these soils, covering some of the highest parts of the district, is provincially called hazel mould, a light, dry, friable, sandy soil, of a moderate staple, and resting upon a chalk rubble (that is, partially dissolved chalk mixed with small broken flints), and which in its native state, affords a short but very good sheep pasture; and which, from its superior elevation, is not early affected by a spell of warm dry weather; but when reduced to a state of tillage, becomes of very little value indeed. This fand, after being opened to aration is very liable to wash: upon many of the brows and side hills of the principal eminences, the light materials have been carried off by the heavy rains, when the remaining surface exhibits a collection of what its subsoil was originally composed of, and which altogether appears unfit for any other purpose than of conversion to a rabbit-warren.
"The second description of down soil which we shall here have occasion to notice, consists of a black vegetable mould, generally of a moderate depth, and lying directly on a bed of flints and rubble, and by which it seems interrupted at some distance from the chalk rock below. This 'soil is evidently produced from an ancient vegetation produced at such times as this species of down was in a forest state: a conjecture much strengthened by the number of thorn bushes, ewe, furze, and juniper which are still found scattered upon it. This sort of down, when properly (that is, hard) stocked with sheep, produces a remarkably sweet herbage, and is still less liable to be affected with a continuance of drought than the soil above described. When appropriated as cow common, or not stocked sufficiently 'close with sheep, it is apt to produce a dwarf species of ling and furze, but which may always be kept down and in an improving state, by stocking with that sort of sheep which are best calculated to browse in such situations and upon such an herbage.
"The third class of down land we find occupying a large portion of this district. It consists of a thin grey loam, Iving almost immediately on a firm bed of chalk. Here the sheep pasture is generally short, but of a most excellent quality it is, however, more suddenly affected in a dry season than the preceding classes, but, in like manner, requires to be kept pared close down, to preserve the natural 'sweetness of its herbage.
"A fourth class of land at present occurring upon the Down, and also forming a large portion of the tillage land in the country, consists of a deep, strong, red, flinty loam, lying at various depths, of from one to eight or ten feet, upon, and partially dipping into the rock chalk below.
This character is usually found to occur on the flat tops of all the lesser eminences in the District, and derives very great and important benefits from chalking, the preceding classes not being in the slightest degree benefited by that material. The depth of this red loamy stratum, above the chalk, sometimes subjects it in the winter season to an excess of moisture; but which is generally much relieved by a due attention being paid to gripping and water-furrowing. This circumstance, however, appears in many places to have given rise to a coarse, tough, and wiry herbage. It abounds with large ragged flints, and though naturally of an arid quality, is capable after chalking of producing excellent wheat, and a prime sample of barley.
"A fifth description of land is found to occupy the brows and side hills of this last class, but which has been much lessened of its loamy proportion by the winter rains and melting snows: here is generally but a thin staple of soil, and that chiefly composed of dissolved chalk, tough and clingy when wet, harsh and chisselly, but when worked at a proper crisis, is found loose and friable; and not unfrequently applied to the culture of turnips, and a convertible system, as well as for the culture of sainfoin, for which it seems most particularly adapted.
"Below the hang of the hills, a deep, strong, grey loam very frequently occurs, intercepted at some distance from the chalk rock by chalk rubble, but not containing so many of the coarse ragged flints, as may be noticed in the red tough loams of class No. 4. This land when wet, rises in a tough livery slice, and when dry, becomes extremely hard and chisselly. The tillage of this class, as well as that of No. 4, is extremely arduous, expensive, and heavy; but when the proper season is obtained for conducting its operations, the labour and difficulty of its husbandry is much lessened. The crops of wheat produced on this latter soil are very considerable, though in general it is not held in very high esteem for the culture of barley,
"Another description of strong laud is found in divers parts of this district, assuming a much darker colour than either the grey chisselly or red flinty loams. It is generally found of a good staple, and lying on a similar subsoil at a considerable distance from the chalk below. This land was observed to wear the marks of being too frequently overcharged with moisture; but in favourable seasons it yields excellent beans, as a precursor to, or after wheat, in the place of a fallow.
"The surface of most of the hollows, and lower sides of the hollows, with which the whole of this district is intersected (and exclusive of the vallies which afford the
rivers and other living streams), is formed of an assem blage of small flat flints, combined with an extremely tough, but proportionably small quantity of loam; and which continues at various and indefinite depths to the chalk below. This is provincially termed shrave, of which there are two sorts, the one just mentioned, which gives the idea of a bank of shingle upon the sea-shore; the other, a red coarse pebbly gravel, mixed with a small portion of tough red loam, or more commonly with a dry, harsh sand, or small gravel, affording a warm subsoil, producing an early vegetation, and is generally applied to the culture of wheat, turnips, barley, and the artificial grasses.
"It must follow, from what has been already stated, that the higher parts of this district have much the appearance of an elevated plain, broken into many irregular parts, and intersected by several deep hollows, in which the brooks and rivulets, rising chiefly within the district, descend on a southern course towards the sea. Along these vallies considerable tracts of meadow and pasture ground are found. On the margin of these water-courses, or rather the vallies through which they pass, for obvious reasons, are seated the greater part of the inhabitants.
"The soil of these low grounds partake very much of a black vegetable mould or moor, on a strong calcareous loam, sometimes superinduced with an adventitious sand, or stratum of fine gravel, or apparently broken into chasms, occupied with large bodies of peat, and which is occa sionally dug for fuel, or burnt in the manner practised in Berkshire for manuring ashes."
Soils of the New Forest, and its environs; or the Southeru Vale Lands of Hampshire.-P. 22. "The soil of the cultivated lands bordering upon the forest of Bere, and Waltham Chase, including the crown demesnes, and other enclosed parts of those forests, consist partly of a thin vegetable mould upon strata of deep sand, coarse gravel, and a moist grey loam upon a woodland clay. A gravelly Joam of a more uniform texture, assuming a light brown or rather hazel colour, seems partially to occur in this variety, and particularly to distinguish the neighbourhood of Southwick, Wickham, Bishop's Waltham, and Botley. The cultivated parts of the parishes of Titchfield, Crofton, Rowner, and Alverstoke, consist of a thin light friable mould upon a gravel, a rich hazel-coloured loam upon a brick-earth, and a moist grey loam upon a strong, blue, white, and yellow clay. The same variety extends through all the cultivated lands from Gosport to the Itchen river.
"The soil of the heaths and commons which occur in this part of the county, and which are generally found to compose the higher lands between Gosport and Titchfield, between Titchfield, Bursledon, and Botley, and between the two latter places and the Itchen river, is not materially different from the same variety of soil and substrata which form the character of the new enclosures at Fareham, and which are found composed of a thin black gravelly mould, and a moist grey loam, on substrata of sand and gravel, strong white and yellowish clay, potters' clay, and brick-earth. Intervening between these latter and the top-mould, is often found a thin subsoil of gravel, but which may be rendered useful, if due advantage is taken of it, for conducting the sub-waters into drains properly constructed to receive it.
"The late enclosures of South Stoneham, consist chiefly of a thin, black, gravelly mould, upon a bed of harsh gravel, a peaty mould upon a blue and yellow clay; and, apon the whole, differing but little from the varieties above noticed in the parish of Fareham.
"The frequent intersections of clay and gravel occasion many wet and boggy places, round which, peat is dug, or rather turf is pared, to a depth of four or six inches, by the inhabitants for fuel.
"A country veined with clay, sand, and gravel, continues through the parishes of North Stoneham, Townhill, Swathing, Bishopstoke, and Otterbourne; ascending northwardly from the latter village, the miscellaneous soil and substrata suddenly terminates in the great body of chalk forming the character of District No. II.
"The cultivated lands north of Southampton, Millbrook, and Redbridge, are much contracted by the extensive commons of Nutshaling and Southampton, but their soil generally consists of a mild gravelly loam and a tender loamy clay. This valuable character pervades to a considerable extent, the commons of these places; but as we approach Chilworth and Badsley, it is found to abate somewhat of its natural superiority.
"Considerable enclosures have lately taken place in these latter parishes, from which, by the aid of draining and the application of chalk, great advantages may be expected to be derived in future. The same variety of soil and substrata prevails through the southern parts of Timsbury; but northwardly it enters the chalk district, A substance called malm, of which there are two sorts, black and white, is found on the borders of Timsbury and Rumsey, and much used as an alterative manure on the sour clays and gravelly heaths composing the enclosures