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This, if I rightly recollect, was one of the very first of the establishments that are now common in most parts of the kingdom. Where men of experience take the lead, they are well calculated to promote the true principles of practice, and to give a right bias to agricultural con
ENURES.-P. 21. "In this county a considerable quantity of land is held under the Bishop of Winchester, as well as under the Dean and Chapter, upon lease for twenty-one years, renewable every seven, which is a very great bar to improvements in agriculture, as the fines upon renewal are always increased, in proportion to what improvements have been made.
"A considerable quantity of land is also held upon three lives, and though it is now the custom in many places, for the lords to let the lives run out, yet it is much against their interest so to do, upon a fair calculation; as, when the lives all drop, the land is generally in very bad condition, and the buildings very much out of repair."
There is some truth, in the last remark; but by no means to the amount intended to be conveyed by it. All lifelease holders are liable to pay to the full amount of dilapidations; and I have rarely known an instance, out of many, of its not being settled to the satisfaction of the proprietor of the estate. The great and almost only difficulty, in allowing lifeleasehold tenements to revert to the "lord," lies with the stoppage of income. A man who has no other income than what arises from the fines of leasehold tenements, cannot, unless his estate is large, and his expenditure comparatively small, suffer his farms "to fall into hand." For, at the demise of the last life, instead of receiving, immediately, an ample portion of the fee-simple value of the land, he is bereft even of its rental value, for six or twelve months to come.
IRRIGATION.-P. 19. "This county is particularly famous for water-meadows, which are extremely productive, and in general very well attended to. The farmers seem aware of the great advantages arising from them, as in many instances they are at considerable expence in purchasing a supply of water, besides the first expence, which is from five to six pounds per acre, exclusive of the continual repair of the sluices, &c."
P. 11. "From Overton towards Stockbridge, and from thence
thence to Redbridge, there is a beautiful vale, well covered with water-meadows."
P. 12. "Towards Fordingbridge and Downton, there are some good water-meadows."
P. 14. Near Warnford there are some good watermeadows on the banks of the river Itching."
REMOVALS.-P. 21. "They are principally Michaelmas farms, and the new tenant enters upon part of the land the first of January, and the first of May, preceding the end of the lease, in order to prepare for wheat and turnips; in a farm of 500 acres about thirty acres the first of January, and about seventy acres the first of May; a certain quantity of saintfoine is also to be left, and paid for by the new tenant.'
WOODLANDS.-See Appropriation, aforegoing.
ARMS.-P. 17. "The size of the farms in this county vary much, the most predominant are from 200l. to 300% per annum.'
WORKPEOPLE.-P. 27. "The servants of farmers are generally fed with pork and pudding the greatest part of the year, except on Sundays, when a joint of meat is sometimes allowed."
IMPLEMENTS.-P. 18. "A nine-share plough is frequently used for the opening of land, in order to make furrows for wheat before sowing, with four horses double; this is also found very useful for backing in barley which was ploughed after wheat, in the autumn, and then only with this nine-share."
MANURE.-P. 12. "Here" (New Forest) "we find chalk a principal manure, which is brought ten or twelve miles; of which they generally allow ten or twelve load per acre.'
P. 19. "There is on the sea coast, near Emsworth and Havant, a fine marle, that is found to improve the deep land very much."
HOPS.-P. 13. "The planting of hops has of late years increased in the following parishes, viz. Bentley, Froyl, Binstead, Hollybourn, Alton, Chawton, Farrington, Silbourn, Kingsley, Great and Little Worldham, Hartley, Maudit, and Shoulden, South Warnborough, Neatham, and Long Sutton; all of which are upon the borders of Surry, and the great repute of the Farnham hops has been the principal cause of the planting in these parishes. Upon the best information we have been able to procure, the
whole may be estimated at about 800 acres. Notwithstanding they are in the adjoining parishes to Farnham, yet they have never been able to procure so much at market by 40s. or 50s. per cwt. as those with the Farnham mark, though they are equally good; and the farther from Farnham, the greater the difference in value."
HORSES.-P. 26. "This county is not remarkable for the breed of good horses. The farmers in general breed their own horses for teams, but not for the saddle. A great number of small horses are bred upon the forests, where but little attention is paid to their shape or size, as they run promiscuously together; and from the barrenness of the soil, for want of cultivation, they are extremely small, having scarcely any thing to feed on but heath, from which they have very properly derived the appellation of heath croppers."
DAIRY.-P. 27. "The breed of cows, in Hants, is in general very indifferent. The Welch breed has been introduced of late, and found to answer very well; but as there are few dairies in this county, very little attention is paid to the breed."
SWINE.-P. 27. "This county is particularly famous for hogs. The farmers encourage the largest sort, as most profitable for large families. The hogs in the neighbourhood of the forests, feed principally upon acorns and
SHEEP.-Breed.-P. 23. "The original Hampshire sheep is horned, and for the most part with a white face, though some few have speckled faces; they were formerly longlegged and narrow, but are now much improved, and are short legged and well carcassed; they are an excellent kind for fatting; their wool is also much improved."
The Number in Hants.-P. 23. "Hampshire is considered as a great breeding county, and the stocks in most parishes are very large, although they are supposed to be reduced one-third, on account of the downs having been broken up, and the inclosures which have lately taken place. The following is a particular account of the stock in the following parishes in this county, which may afford some information to the Board the Board upon that interesting subject."
P. 25. "From the best accounts we have been able to get, we conceive the number in the whole county to be about 350,000."
Market for Sheep.-P. 11. "A very considerable fair is held at Weyhill once a year, which is particularly famous for sheep, and it is supposed that upwards of 140,000 are sold there in one day."
ISLE OF WIGHT,
(Forming a Part of Hampshire.)
OBSERVATIONS ON THE MEANS OF ITS IMPROVEMENT.
BY THE REV. MR. WARNER.
EGARDING the qualifications of the writer of this Report, I say nothing. It is a It is a mere sketch, a slight topographical account of the islet. The twenty pages are suitably written.
EXTENT.-P. 47. "Its superficial contents are reckoned at 100,000 acres."
SURFACE.-P. 48. "The face of the country is various, beautiful, and picturesque; consisting of gently swelling bills, diversified with intermediate vallies, verdant well watered meads and rich corn fields. A chain of bills stretches from east to west through the heart of the island."
CLIMATURE.-P. 47. " The air, particularly in the higher southern parts, is extremely wholesome; frequent instances of longevity occurring, and a general appearance of health and vigour prevailing among the lower ranks of people."
SOIL and FOSSILS.-P. 47. " The soil is extremely different in different parts of the island; and sometimes exhibits a remarkable variety, even in the same parish-Thus for instance, in Brading, the most eastern parish, the following varieties occur: the south part consists of a free, kindworking earth, mixt with a small proportion of sand; the west, of a light loam, mixed with chalk; and the north and east parts of a stiff clay, scarcely yielding to the operations of the husbandman. In many parts of the island, the soil is gravelly; in others flinty; but its general character is a strong and loamy earth, well calculated for agricultural
purposes. It abounds with marle, both shell and stone; chalk, fuller's and brick earth; tobacco pipe clay; stone of different qualities; and various kinds of sands; of the last, a fine white sort is found in the parish of Freshwater, on a manor belonging to John Urry, Esq. of Yarmouth, esteemed far superior to any other in the kingdom, and used in great quantities for the glass and porcelaine manufactories."
"Its fertility is almost proverbial, having long since been said to produce more in one year, than could be consumed by its inhabitants in eight; an improved husbandry introduced of late years has increased this fertility, and from what I have been able to collect, we may now estimate its annual production to be at least ten times as much as its consumption."-But see Workpeople, ensuing.
APPROPRIATION.-P. 57. "There is but little waste land in the island; and this chiefly exhibits a sandy soil, which would not probably pay the expences of its cultivation.
"Perhaps, indeed, Parkhurst or Carisbrook Forest, lying in the centre of the island, may at present be properly denominated waste land, as it remains in an inactive useless state, without affording any advantages to the Crown, whose property it is; and very trifling ones to the inhabitants who reside in its neighbourhood. This tract of land, which contains 3000 acres, is situated to the north of Newport and Carisbrook; and though called a forest, has long been without a tree of any value; there is, however, a lodge still kept up, and a keeper appointed, whose office it is to preserve the deer and the wood, of which scarce a vestige remains. Notwithstanding the inattention paid hitherto by Government to Parkhurst Forest, the soil is, in many places, extremely good; and capable of being applied to the most valuable purposes."
POOR RATES.-P. 63. "A few years back, great abuses having been experienced in the management of the poor, in the different parishes of the island, the gentlemen determined to adopt some mode of remedying the evil; and accordingly, in 1770, a general meeting of the respectable inhabitants was held, in which it was proposed that an Act of Parliament should be procured, to consolidate the poor rates of the several parishes, and to erect a House of Industry for the general reception of the paupers.
"The proposal being agreed to, a Bill was accordingly obtained, and a large building erected on part of the Forest of Packhurst, eighty acres of which were granted by Parliament for this purpose."
WOODLANDS.-P. 55. "Timber was formerly extremely plenty in the island, but the inhabitants have had so good a