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ing to the natural, political, and rural economy of each, in detail; and, at the close of each parochial journal, to' insert a wide-spreading table, exhibiting several more minute, though not perhaps less important, matters, at one view;-afterward reporting, in a digested form, the general information relating to the County at large;-together with his own opinions and sentiments concerning the several subjects touched upon,-in a distinct part of the Work, termed "Part II."
His survey of Essex, though made on the same general principle, differs in its minutiæ. Instead of giving, in detail, the several particulars, as to soil &c. &c. &c. of each parish, he throws the County into fourteen Districts; and gives a cursory report of each; with a table of sundry particulars of information at the close of each district.
In the Essex, as in the Cambridgeshire Report, a "second Part" is added; stating, in many instances, the existing circumstances, and the prevailing practices, of the County at large, at the time of reporting, but setting forth, more generally, the Reporter's own sentiments on the subjects brought forward.
My mode of abstraction, in this case, has been to systematize, agreeably to the general plan of my present Work, the particulars which have engaged my attention in going through the volume (no matter whether in the "Journal," or the "second Part") and which, I conceive, will be conducive to its value.
Mr. Vancouver's districts from which I have selected the following particulars of information are the sixth (in part), the whole of the seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, and eleventh, and the principal part of the fourteenth. These districts and parts of districts are principally included within the following outlines:-the sea coast, on the east:the Thames, on the south:-the river Lea, on the west: and, on the north, an almost straight line, passing nearly by Walthamstow, Epping, Ongar, Chelmsford, the river Chelmar, and the Estuary of the Blackwater river, to the British sea. For the situation of each, see the next page. The number of pages-two hundred and thirteen. A map of districts.
SUBJECT THE FIRST.
OILS.-On this subject of Report Mr. V. has bestowed great attention. At the head of each of his districts, he has given, in a few words, the specific qualities of the lands which they severally contain; and then leads his reader across the area of each; describing to him the particular sorts of soils and substrata, that fell in his way. The former statements being sufficiently descriptive, to convey a general idea of the lands of South Essex, 1 readily give them a place, here.
District seven-situated between the Estuary of the river Blackwater and the river Crouch, nearly corresponding with the hundred of Dengy.-P. 64. "Temperate and heavy mixed soil, upon a brown tender clay, a gravelly loam, a brick and a tile earth."
District eighth-comprizing the main land of the hundred of Rochford; being situated between the Crouch and the Estuary or mouth of the Thames.-P. 71. Temperate mixed soil, upon a gravelly loam, a gravel, and a brick earth."
District ninth-the islands in the Estuary, and at the mouth, of the Thames.-P. 77. "The islands of Foulness, Wallasea, Potton, Haven-Gore, New England, and Canvey. All consisting of a deep rich hazel coloured loam, upon a fine sea sand or silt, ouze, or sea clay: the husbandry of which, equally applies to the embanked marshes, and all such lands as have been produced by, and enclosed at different times from the sea."
District the tenth ;-a small tract, situated to the north of Canvey Island, within the hundred of Barnstable.P. 83. "Strong heavy mixed soil upon a brown clay, or brick earth, a gravelly loam, and a tough red clay, or tile earth."
District the eleventh ;-bordering on the Thames, on the south;-the towns of Romford, Brentwood, and Billerricay standing near its northern margin.-P. 86. "Being that of a temperate mixed soil, upon a sandy and a gravelly loam, a pure sand, a pure gravel, a chalk, a brick, and some tile earth.”
District the fourteenth ;-adjacent to the County of Middlesex; including the dairy and forest lands.-P. 109. "Temperate
"Temperate mixed soil, upon a gravelly loam, a yellow woodland clay, a brick, and a tile earth, and a chalky clay."
SUBJECT THE SECOND.
APPROPRIATION.-P. 110. “The adjacent forests.
of Epping and, Henhault, are viewed as an intolerable nuisance, and are equally regarded as such, at Chigwell and at Loughton, where the farmers uniformly declare, that the privilege of commonage is by no means equal to the one tenth part of the losses they constantly sustain from the deer in breaking down their fences, trespassing upon their fields, and destroying their crops either ripe or green. Against these depredators it is further alledged, that there are no fences, however laboriously contrived, expensive, and formidable against other animals, that will in any wise avail: add to this, that the evil is continually. increasing from the annual increase in the stock of deer.
"These forests, so near the metropolis, are well known to be the nursery and resort of the most idle and profligate of men here the under graduates in iniquity commence. their career with deer stealing, and here the more finished and hardened, robber secrets himself from justice, or retires for a time with his plunder from his haunts in London, where his, arrest is certain, whenever it is determined by the master robber, or the robber catcher, that the active and actual robber is to be done."
The Improvement, of which the County of Essex is ca. pable of receiving, by the complete. Appropriation of its Commonable Lands.-P. 185. "A general statement of the improvement, which by enclosing and-laying into severalty, may be annually made on, the present rent, or, value of the open common fields and waste lands, in this County.
By a reference to the minutes taken on the survey, it appears, that the arable land in about forty parishes in the county, lies very much in open common fields; and which, in point of quantity, is found to average about 1,200 acres per parish. This amounts in the whole to, 48,000 acres; the excess whereof in the annual rent or value from enclosure and laying into severalty, would, according to the general average table, be 4s. 6d.
4s. 6d, per acre, and consequently form an
annually increased income, or revenue of £10,800 0, 0 By enclosing or embanking from the sea
4,600 acres of salt marsh, an acquisition to that extent would be made to the national territory, and yield to the individual owners annually 15s. 6d. per acre, equal to ......... 3,565 O "By enclosing for cultivation 10,370 acres of thicks or forest lands, unfit for the growth of oak timber, thereby improving its rent or annual value 12s. 6d. per acre By enclosing and laying into severalty 14,237 acres of waste or common land, thereby increasing its annual rent or value 11s. 4d. per acre, equals
.... 6,481 5 Q
5,067 12 8
£25,913 17 8"
For farther information, see the head Summary, at the close of this article.
PUBLIC EMBANKMENT.-See above.
PAUPERAGE. This Reporter of Essex is the first writer whom I have heard to speak of the revenues of the poor.. Not in the way of modest intimation. He boldly declares that "as revenues of the poor, they may now with as much propriety, as roundly and as correctly be asserted, as any other revenue drawn from the subject, and attaching upon the crown." p. 159,
And on this foundation he builds his plan of reform. The first step of which is this:-p. 160. "Let the average value of labour in every parish be correctly ascertained, and let an argumentation thereon be made equal to the annual amount of the present poor's rates in such parish." 'Now, it has so happened, in the very County of Essex, that what was the present poor's rates" in a parish, has lately been, and I fear still is, tenfold greater; and what is, now, may, in no great length of time, be tenfold. less.
That the present "Poor Laws" of this Country are, as a punster might say, poor indeed, every one seems to be well aware. I have not, however, found them more forcibly satirized than in the subjoined extract.
P. 161. "How different the whole design from the melancholy experience of thousands, who in the present day, and in the case of settlement only, are no longer treated as sensible and rational beings, but are hunted like wild beasts from parish to parish, not because they have offended against the laws of their country, or otherwise
possess evil, which ought to be avoided; but too often because they may have piqued the parish officers; or that some of those gentlemen may occasionally wish for a frolick, at the expence of the parish, or for an agreeable excursion in a post chaise: but this, together with the immense sums annually expended in legal contests concerning the removal and settlement of paupers, and which are necessarily charged to the account of the poor, would on a certainty be saved, were an arrangement generally adopted, somewhat similar in principle to that above stated."
SUBJECT THE THIRD.
IMPROVING ESTATES.-Forming Drinking Places
for Pasturing Stock.-P. 78. (Marshland Islands.) " From the situation, general structure, and materials, of which these islands are formed; it is obvious, that they can afford no springs of water; and consequently, that the only supply for drinking, or for fencing, is to be obtained from the rain, or from the melted snows: this forms but a precarious and scanty dependance, which in the summer season is frequently dried up, or by putrefaction rendered extremely injurious to the health of the inhabitants, and too frequently also to that of the horses and cattle: Hence there are but few resident occupiers in the islands; and in particular dry seasons, the larger stock are driven from Foulness to Shoebury for water; and in like manner from the other islands, and embanked marshes, the cattle are driven at much expence and inconvenience to water upon the higher lands."
These natural inconveniences, or shall we say distressing circumstances, might surely be alleviated, or removed, by art. An inclined plane of one eighth of an acre in extent (more or less according to given circumstances, and as experience would soon point out:-in ordinary cases a few square rods would be sufficient), with a spacious receptacle on the lower side of it, would collect, in the course of twelve months, rain water sufficient to supply, with wholesome beverage, a numerous herd of cattle, during the grazing season.
The method of forming artificial pools is now known,