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excellent meadow land on the Middlesex side of the river Lea, belonging to the parishes of Enfield, Edmonton, Tottenham, &c. The canal is cut through these meadows, and falls into the river Lea, near Old Ford. This tract of meadows, containing about 1000 acres, is divided, as appears by the stakes, to the different proprietors, in allotments, from about half an acre, to four or five acres, but in general in two and three acres. They are laid up to be mowed every year on the 5th of April, and after the hay is cut, and taken off, are opened again for commonage on the 12th of August: and this is what is called Lammas Tenure.' Every inhabitant of the respective parishes claims and exercises a right of turning into these meadows what stock he pleases; there being no stint to this right of common. Every horse, cow, or heifer, thus turned in, is marked by the parish brand for one penny each; and if any are found thereon unmarked, they are taken to the pound, and are not released without paying a fine of eighteen pence each, if they belong to a parishioner, and if otherwise the fine is three-shillings each.

"These meadows are frequently flowed both in winter and in summer, not only by the river Lea, but by the canal; but it does not appear that any attention is paid, either by keeping the ditches, or the other drains to carry off these floods, open; by which neglect the water is suffered to remain, to the great injury of the meadows. The reason assigned for this neglect, I understand, is, that the property is in small pieces, intermixed, and subject to Lammas tenure, which prevents any general system from being pursued by one, as all must join in the expences for the improvement required."

Common Fields.-P. 72. "The common fields in the county of Middlesex, which are at present in a good course of husbandry, form a large proportion as to the number of acres, when compared to the cultivated inclosures in the county."

On Appropriating common Pastures.-Mr. F. brings forward two instances of "Inclosure;"-namely, that of the parish of Stanwell, and that of Enfield.

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Relating to the latter, some memorable circumstances occurred. I recollect its being said that in the inclosure of ENFIELD CHACE, much money, even fortunes, had been sunk*. The subjoined extracts show the twofold ignorance through which those losses were brought on.

P 40.

* See the second edition of my Rural Economy of YORKSHIRE; in which I noticed the subject here under view, and pointed out the way by which those losses might, with certainty, have been avoided.

P. 40. "Enfield Chace, though it is now near seventeen years since it was inclosed, has not profited so much by management or exertion, as might have been expected.

"The original purchasers of the crown-leases were ignorant both of experimental and of practical agriculture, being, in general, gentlemen retiring from trade into the country, and who, from the former habits of their lives, were ignorant of that regular process of husbandry which new soil requires to bring it into a state of profitable cultivation.

"The ground of the Chace was covered with trees; and although the oak found a ready sale, the beech did not repay the woodman's labour. The grubbing and stocking up of the roots was a still farther impediment; and the industry of these inexperienced farmers was alarmed and checked by the considerable advance of money which was immediately required to clear the ground. Partial and penurious experiments made upon a raw and crude soil, that had been for ages shut up from the rays of the sun by the thickness of the surrounding foliage, were not likely to be crowned with success. It will not excite wonder, therefore, that the new soil sullenly and reluctantly yielded to the adventurers from the metropolis, the seed they sowed: The wood, however, at length encreased in price, and, by the monies it produced, opened a way to the farther improvement of the soil."

P. 41. "The rise in the value of wood evinced, that though the ground refused to repay the toils of husbandry in the produce of grain, it would, at least for a certain time, produce, by the value of its wood, sufficient to answer the call of the Crown for rent.

"The ground, therefore, though rapidly cleared of its wood, lay, for the most part, in an uncultivated state for many years; for the real intrinsic nature of this soil never having been properly tried, remained entirely unknown.

"Time, however, has lately discovered it to be of a strong clay marl, containing a great proportion of calcareous earth, effervescing with acids, and equal, if not superior, in its quality and effects to most of the marls in this country.

"A circumstance of so interesting a nature, not only caught the eye of speculation, but the more useful one of the practical farmer. The gravelly jejune soil, of which the Chace was originally supposed to consist, no longer imposed an insuperable obstacle to improvement; the marl soon produced its expected effect; and the rapid progress which, within these four or five years, has been made in the cultivation of the Chace is surprising."

PROVISIONS.-P. 68. "Bread, throughout the county of Middlesex

H 4

Middlesex, appears to be, in regard to price, the same as regulated by the city magistrates, in proportion to the price of wheat. In the vicinity of London, all kinds of butchers meat are equally as dear as in the London markets. In the more remote part of the county, and in the market towns of Uxbridge and Brentford, pork, poultry, eggs, and vegetables, as well as milk, are to be had something under the London-market prices; but beef, mutton, veal, and lamb, are seldom to be had at a cheaper rate; and, I much question, if the coarse pieces of beef, &c. are not sold cheaper to the poor in London, than in any part of the country."

CANALS.-P. 8. "There is a navigable canal leading from Hertfordshire along the banks of the river Lea, with which it forms a junction in the neighbourhood of Bow, from whence the united streams run to Limehouse, and incorporate themselves with the waters of the Thames.

"The Branston canal also, which is now nearly finished, enters Middlesex near Uxbridge, passes by Drayton, runs near to Cranford, at a little distance from Osterley-Park, and forms a junction with the river Thames at Brentford."

IN

RURAL ECONOMY.

TENANTED ESTATES.

N passing through this Report, the work of a "Landsurveyor," I have not discovered a sentence, on the management of landed property, that requires particular notice, here.

WOODLAND S.

NOR on this interesting object of examination, to a

landsurveyor, have I been more successful. it is true, is not now a woodland County.

AGRICULTURE.

Middlesex,

LAN of MANAGEMENT.-Mr. Foot reports the "System of Husbandry," in different districts of the County; very properly declaring the nature of the land, in each. I

perceive

perceive nothing, however, in any of the Middlesex systems, that he has reported, which requires to be registered.

WORKING ANIMALS.-See Horses, ensuing.

IMPLEMENTS.-P. 75. "The Rev. Mr. James Cooke, of Red Lion-square, London, has greatly simplified and improved his patent drill-machine, as well as its attendant cultivator, &c.

"In my correspondence with this gentleman he furnished me with the following account of these implements."— This clerical, mechanist's account occupies the principal part of Mr. Foot's section, "Implements of Husbandry," in the County of Middlesex.

The subjoined account of the prevailing wheel carriage, used in husbandry, in the County under report, is entitled to a place, here;-as it records a usage in English husbandry which now belongs, almost exclusively, to the more immediate environs of the Metropolis;-most particularly to the hay farms;-rather than, generally, to the County at large.

P. 75. "There are but few waggons used; and the carts mostly in use are the six-inch wheeled shooting-carts, with iron arms of various sizes for their axis. These carts, with the addition of movable head and tail ladders, carry hay, corn, &c. and, when thus, enlarged, are found more convenient in the farming business than waggons, they being less expensive, and standing in less space when

out of use."

ARABLE CROPS.-Concerning this subject, I have found nothing of importance, in the Report under view.

GRASS LAND.-Common Meadows-P. 66 70. From Fulham to Chiswick, and almost all along the margin of the river Thames, as far as Staines, are meadows, to a great extent, which are frequently flowed both by the tides and by the floods. These inundations produce great quantities of rush, and other coarse grasses, and render it extremely difficult to make the produce into hay; and, indeed, when this is accomplished in the best possible manner, it is but little worth. Most of these meadows have open ditches dug in the lowest part of them to take off the water which remains after the tides and floods have retired; but, the surface being in general nearly a dead level, the water drains very slowly off; and in the winter season the soil is so very tender that it will hardly bare the weight of stock upon it.'

P. 71. "Extensive and fertile meadows also adorn the banks of the river Coln, from Staines to Harefield.--Those at Harefield are known by the name of 'The Moor,' and contain about 300 acres, which are watered by the

river Coln. Parts of these meadows are mowed twice a year, and other parts grazed. A more strict attention is paid to the keeping of the drains and ditches in these meadows in proper order, than in any of those before mentioned, adjacent to the rivers Lea and Thames."

Haymaking.-P. 55. "Hay-making in Middlesex is carried on by a process peculiar to the county, and which, if the weather be favourable, has, by a long course of practice and experience, been attended with almost invariable success. To state this process clearly to the Board, I shall particularly describe the operations of each day, from the first employment of the scythe, until the hay is stacked in the yard, or field."-And so, in truth, the Reporter has described the operation of each day;without any regard being paid to the state in which the grass to be made into hay was cut; namely, as to whether it had been cut while in a growing state, in a moist time, and of course full of sap; or overgrown, in a dry season, and of course nearly made as it stood; or to the size of the crop, whether heavy or light; and but little as to the weather after the cutting,-whether it shall happen to be rainy or fair, cloudy or clear, hot or cold, calm or windy! Circumstances, these, which jointly and severally accelerate or retard the progress of making hay. They may fit the crop for the stack, in a few days, or may detain it as many weeks, in the field.

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Neverthelss, Mr. Foot's account of the method of haymaking, which has, I believe been practised, time immemorial, by the hay farmers, in the neighbourhood of the metropolis, by men who live by haymaking-being the fullest and the most correct that I have seen in print,-in regard to the various operations there in use,-I will here insert it, entire.-Practical men, in almost every district of the kingdom, may gather something from it, to improve their own practices.

P. 56. "On the first day, all the grass mowed before nine o'clock in the morning is tedded, broke as much as possible, and well turned. This is performed before twelve o'clock, and, if hands are plenty, it will be of great advantage to turn it a second time. It is then raked into wind-rows; and afterwards made into small cocks.

"The business of the second day is, to ted all the grass which was mowed the preceding day, after nine o'clock, and to ted, and treat as above, all that was mowed on this day before nine o'clock. But before the grass of this day's work is turned, the small cocks of the preceding day, should be well shaken out into straddles, or separate plats, of five or six yards square. If the crop is so thin as to leave the spaces

between

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