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house was then in the joint occupation of himself, and a hosier, by name, John Mason.

Here we have the picture of a man, who after the struggles of early days, was carrying on his trade in a modest way, consistent with the moderate and unassuming tenor of his known after life, and wholly inconsistent with the "tradition of his family," that he was a "Hambro' merchant;" though it may be nevertheless true of his after trading, that he "did not require the convenience of a shop wherein to expose his goods to public view."

The self esteem of a biographer is naturally shocked at the idea of a named occupation grating to the ears of modern manhood-hence the stilts! But in names as well as things has fashion changed. A sempster and milliner might not inappropriately share a house with a trade so kindred as that of a dealer in hose; nor was the former a less important

house), and Walton's residence adjoining, have both given way to modern improvements. Malcolm, in 1803, says: The Corporation of London, seizing every opportunity to widen and improve the passage of the streets, have removed the old overhanging houses of timber, which darkened and obstructed the corner of Chancerylane, where Mrs. Salmon had many years exhibited her models in wax.-Lond. Rediviv., v. iii., p. 461.

Hose, breeches or stockings, or both in one; so that the doublet and hose formed the dress. Thus Shakspere :

"And youthful still in your doublet and hose, this raw rheumatic day!"-Merry Wives of Windsor, iii. 1.

That is, without a cloak. So also of Falstaff's men in buckram : Fals. Their points being broken,

Poins.-Down fell their hose.-1 Hen. IV., ii. 4.

Trunk hose were the round swelling breeches observed in portraits, of the age of Elizabeth and James I., referred to in the old play:

Nay, you are strong men, els you could not beare these britches.
Are these such great hose?-Damon and Pithias.

And thus does Butler describe the nether garment of his hero :—

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Engraved by J.T.Smith, from a Trawing, taken by him in, May. 1794.





Published by Henry Kent Causton.1851.

calling than the latter, when the court, the gentry and citizens, each in their sphere, wore ruffs, collars, cuffs, and other similar items of dress, embroidered, cut, or plain, according to the fashion, rank and station of the wearer. The importer of those expensive articles of attire from the "citie of Millen," in the time of the two last Henries and Elizabeth, gave place to the manufacturer of them-the "Sempster and Milliner" of the following reign.

A "man-milliner "* is now a monstrosity, and the

His breeches were of rugged woollen,
And had been at the siege of Bullen;
To old king Harry so well known,
Some writers held they were his own.
Thro' they were lined with many a piece

Of ammunition bread and cheese,

And fat black puddings,-proper food
For warriors that delight in blood!
For, as we said, he always chose,

To carry vittle in his hose.—Hudibras, Pt. I., c. l.

The early milliner was essentially a masculine occupation, and as the importer of the articles, might be accounted a "merchant" in modern acceptation. Ben Jonson writes of a "Milliner's wife." (Every Man in his Humour, i. 3.) From Shakspere we learn another branch of the milliner's trade: "He hath songs for man or woman of all sizes: no milliner can so fit his customer with gloves."-(Winter's Tale.) And Autolychus himself thus sums up the feminine portion of the trade :—

Lawn, as white as driven snow;
Cyprus, black as e'er was crow;
Gloves as sweet as damask roses;
Masks for faces and for noses;
Bugle bracelet, necklace amber:
Perfume for a lady's chamber :
Golden quoifs, and stomachers,
For my lads to give their dears;
Pins and poking-sticks of steel;
What maids lack from head to heel.

--Winter's Tale, iv. 3. "Mantua Maker," formerly wholly masculine, is not now entirely obsolete in the epicene, though fashion has transformed the masculine into the "Ladies' Habit Maker;" and custom associates the feminine with the "Dress Maker." Perhaps the "Stay Maker" was considered neuter; but we well remember the visit of a "gentleman" from the neighbouring town in the north of

record of his occupation exists only in the paintings of a bye-gone age. Members of the Bar, the Church, and pupils of some Public Schools of ancient foundation, are now perhaps the only patrons of an anomalous trade supplanted by the modern hosier; yet if the bands worn by the persons mentioned, are but shorn collars* of an earlier age, it is not improbable that the "Sempster and Milliner" of Walton's time is now represented by the Robe Maker still thriving on the site of his residence.


England, to the old Hall of our early days, "to take the measure of a young lady, for an article of her wardrobe, now only imagined by masculine eyes.

Ruffs, the ordinary civil costume of the sixteenth century, were worn both by divines and lawyers, until supplanted by the laced and cut bands:

Ruffs of the bar,

By the vacations power transformed are,
To cut-work bands.-Habington.

Cut-work was an elegant and economical substitute for threadłace or embroidery. In the reign of James the First, came into vogue the broad square stiffened collars, plain, or edged with lace, which also bore the name of bands; and in the following reign, the subdued neat plain band distinguished the puritan.

Archdeacon Nares observes that, "what from old usage was within these forty years called a band at the Universities, is now called a pair of bands, probably from a supposed resemblance to a pair of breeches!"(Gloss. p. 25.) Barring any such resemblance, a pair seems the natural description of the converted plurality; but that the modern bands are the remnant of the broad band or collar, is too apparent to be doubted. The Rev. James Granger observes, that "the clerical band, which was first worn with broad lappets, apparently had its origin from the falling band, which was divided under the chin (Biog. Hist.); and a reverend correspondent of a literary periodical has more recently suggested the deduction, apparently as an economy of attire, on the principle that what is not seen is unnecessary; for "when the scarf, still in use, was drawn over the shoulders and hung down in front, that part of the broad collar which was left visible, being divided up the middle, presented a shape and appearance exactly like our common bands."-N. & Q., v. ii., p. 126. The deduction is visibly apparent in several engraved portraits of divines of the seventeenth century, particularly in that of George Herbert, and of Dr. Wilkins, bishop of Chester.

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