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leave the wings of an equal length,-your fly will never else swim true,-and the work is done.* And

*To Mr. Walton's directions for fly making (Pt. I. p. 145), and Mr. Cotton's (as above) may not unfitly be added the directions of Col. R. Venables, whose work, accompanying the Complete Angler, 1676, received the highest encomium from the Father of the sport himself.

First (observes this ingenious Angler), I set on my hook (the hair placed on the inside its shank), with such coloured silk as I conceive most proper for the Fly, beginning at the end of the hook; and when I come to that place I conceive most proportionable for the wings, then I place such coloured feathers as most resemble the fly's wings, and set the points of the wings towards the head; or else run the feathers (stripped from the quill with the skin or film part cleaving to the feathers) round the hook, and so make them fast. If I do so, then I clip away those on the back of the hook, that so, if possible, the point of it may be forced by the feathers left on the inside of the hook, to swim upwards; and by this means I conceive the stream will carry your fly's wings in the posture of one flying. Whereas, if you set the points of the wings backward, towards the bend of the hook, the stream, (if the feathers be gentle, as they ought) will fold the wings points in the hook's bend, as I have found by experience. After I have set on the wings I go on, so far as I judge fit, till I fasten all; and then begin to make the body, and the head last. The body of the Fly I make several ways. If the Fly be of one entire colour, then I take a worsted thread, or moccado end; or twist wool or fur into a kind of thread; or wax a very small silk thread, and lay wool, fur, &c. upon it: then twist, and the materials will stick to it; and then go on to make my Fly, small or large, as I please. If the Fly, as most are, be of several colours, and those running in circles round it, then I either take two of these threads (fastening them first toward the bend of the hook), and so run them round, and fasten all at the wings; and then make the head. Or else I lay upon the hook, wool, fur of the Hare, Dog, Fox, Bear, Cow, Hog (which close to their bodies have a fine fur), and with the silk of the other colour bind the same down, and then fasten all: or, instead of the silk running thus round the Fly, pluck the feathers from one side of those long ones growing about a Cock or Capon's neck or tail (which some call a hackle); then run the same round your Fly from head to tail, making both ends fast. But be sure to suit the feather answerable to the colour you are to imitate in the Fly. And this way you may counterfeit those rough insects which some call wool-beds, because of their wool-like outsides and rings of divers colours: I take them to be Palmer-worms, which the fish much delight in. Let me add this only, that some flies have forked tails, some horns, both which you must imitate with a slender thread fastened to the head or tail of your Fly, when

this way of making a fly, which is certainly the best of all other, was taught me by a kinsman of mine, one Captain Henry Jackson, a near neighbour, an

*

you first set on your hook; and in all things, as length, colour, as like to the natural fly as you can possibly. The head is made after the rest of the body, of silk (or hair, as being of a more shining glossy colour than the other materials), as usually the fly's head is more bright than the body, and usually different coloured. Sometimes I make the body with a peacock's feather, but that is only one sort of fly, whose colour, nothing else I could ever get would imitate, being a short fly, of a sad, golden-green colour, with short brown wings (bred in May), which I make thus: Take one strain of a peacock's feather (or if not sufficient, another), wrap it about the hook till the body be according to your mind. If your fly be of divers colours, and those lying long-ways from head to tail, then I take my dubbing and lay them on the hook, long-ways, one colour by another, as they are mixed in the natural fly, from head to tail; then bind all on, and make it fast with silk of the most predominant colour. And this I conceive is a more artificial way than is practised by many Anglers; who use to make such a fly of one colour, and bind it on with silk; so that it looks like a fly with round circles, but nothing at all resembles the fly it is intended for. The head, horns, tail, are made as before.

The better to counterfeit all sorts of flies, get furs of all colours, &c. (see Complete Angler, Pt. II., ch. vI, p. 362,) that you may make yours exactly of the same colour with the natural fly. I have observed that very many make their flies suitable to the most orient colours you see in the natural fly, which is usually the back part, and commonly excels the belly in lustre and splendour; and so you conceive you imitate the fly exactly, when it is nothing so; because the back part is out of the fish's eye; and if you fail of sport, as usually you do, you impute it to the want of the right fly: whereas you have not truly imitated the right colour of the fly, which the fish chiefly see and regard. Therefore,

1. In making the artificial fly, chiefly observe the belly of the fly, for that colour the fish most take notice of, as being most in their eye.

2. When you try how to fit the colour of your fly, wet your fur, hair, wool, or muccado; otherwise you will fail in your work; for though when these materials are dry, they exactly suit the colours of the fly, yet the water will alter most colours, and make them either brighter or darker.

N.B. For every sort of fly have three; one of a lighter colour, another sadder than the natural fly, and a third of the exact colour of the fly, to suit all waters and weather.-Exper. Angler, 1676.

Of a family seated at Bubnel, (Bubbenhale), in the High Peak, about 2 miles from Stoney Middleton; of which three generations are described in the visitation of 1662.-Lysons.

admirable fly-angler, by many degrees the best flymaker that ever I yet met with. And now that I have told you how a fly is to be made, you shall presently see me make one, with which you may peradventure take a Trout this morning, notwithstanding the unlikeliness of the day; for it is now nine of the clock, and fish will begin to rise, if they will rise to-day I will walk along by you, and look on; and after dinner I will proceed in my lecture of fly-fishing.

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VIAT. I confess I long to be at the river: and yet I could sit here all day to hear you; but some of the one, and some of the other, will do well: and I have a mighty ambition to take a Trout in your river

Dove.

Pisc. I warrant you shall: I would not for more than I will speak of but you should, seeing I have so extolled my river to you: nay, I will keep you here a month, but you shall have one good day of sport before you go.

VIAT. You will find me, I doubt, too tractable that way; for in good earnest, if business would give me leave, and that if it were fit, I could find in my heart to stay with you for ever.

PISC. I thank you, Sir, for that kind expression: and now let me look out my things to make this fly.

CHAPTER VI.

Of FLY-MAKING, and some Trials of Sport.

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PISCATOR.

Boy, come, give me my dubbing bag here presently and now, Sir, since I find you so honest a man, I will make no scruple to lay open my treasure before you.

VIAT. Did ever any one see the like! what a heap of trumpery is here! certainly never an Angler in Europe has his shop half so well furnished as you have.

PISC. You, perhaps, may think now, that I rake together this trumpery, as you call it, for shew only; to the end that such as see it, which are not many I assure you, may think me a great master in the art of Angling: but, let me tell you, here are some colours, as contemptible as they seem here, that are very hard to be got; and scarce any one of them, which, if it should be lost, I should not miss, and be concerned about the loss of it too, once in the year. But look you, Sir, amongst all these I will choose out these two colours only, of which, this is bear's hair; this darker, no great matter what; but I am sure I have killed a great deal of fish with it; and with one or both of these, you shall take Trout or Grayling this very day, notwithstanding all disadvantages, or my art shall fail me.

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