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necessary qualifications for dealing with ancient manuscripts, or accurately summing up the result of antiquarian researches; but we can all help in some way or other, to further either the intellectual, the social, or the material well-being of the Society.

We have now printed eight volumes of our quarto series since the foundation of the Society in 1885, the last two of which have been issued during the past few months. For these, which will, I think, prove to be two of the most generally useful, we owe our thanks to Dr. La Touche and Mr. Page, who have respectively edited the "Registers of the French Conformed Churches of St. Patrick and St. Mary, Dublin," and the "Denizations and Naturalizations of Aliens in the Reigns of Henry VIII., Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth." We are in a special way indebted to these gentlemen for the volumes in question, inasmuch as the Dublin Registers happen to be the private property of Dr. La Touche, so that without his kind permission, we should have found it impossible to publish them at all; whilst Mr. Page has not only seen the volume of Denizations through the press, but has transcribed the original MSS. preserved at the Record Office and elsewhere, and supplied a most valuable historical introduction.

You have already heard from the Report of the Council that the concluding part of the Canterbury Registers, edited by Mr. Hovenden, is in course of being printed. It will form the next issue in our quarto series, and I hope that the Society's funds may allow of its being speedily followed by the first volume of the Threadneedle Street Registers. A considerable portion of these has already been transcribed and they only await an editor.

Last year we began a new volume, the fourth, of "Proceedings," the first number of which contains, amongst other interesting articles, a paper on the Flemish and Walloon Refugees in England in the Sixteenth Century. I wish to call this specially to your recollection as it was contributed by one of our foreign Honorary Fellows, M. Rahlenbeck, and is written in French. I think it is always particularly agreeable to us to receive such proofs of the interest taken in the Society by its foreign members, and it seems to me very proper that every now and then, papers should appear in our Proceedings" in French, the language of our Huguenot ancestors. The second number of this new volume of "Proceedings" is now in active preparation, and will, I think, be found not inferior to any of its predecessors. It will con

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tain several illustrations (for which, by the way, we shall be indebted to the liberality of some of our Fellows), and the important paper on the French Church at Dover which Mr. Minet read at our meeting in March. Perhaps I may also be allowed to mention my own contribution on the Duc de Rohan's relations with the Republic of Venice, inasmuch as it gives particulars of many unpublished MSS. in the Venetian archives which may prove useful to future students of the Duke's career. The " Proceedings" will also contain Miss Layard's account of the life of this very distinguished Huguenot leader, and Dr. Maguire's paper on other celebrated commanders.

This reference to the Venetian archives leads me to say that I have been continuing my researches there during the past two winters, and have, amongst other things, found the original Despatches of Michele Suriano and Marc' Antonio Barbaro, the drafts or copies of which, in the Library of St. Mark, were published by the Society two years ago in the sixth volume of our " Publications." You will remember that I stated in the short introduction which preceded them, that the Despatches written by Barbaro during the greater part of the first year of his embassy were missing. Such also was the case as regards his Despatches from the 7th of August, 1563, to the 14th of June, 1564, when he quitted France and was succeeded by Giacomo Suriano. I have found all these missing Despatches in the archives. Many of them are of considerable importance for Huguenot history, and I intend to have some, if not all of them, copied for presentation to the Society, leaving it to the Council to decide whether or no it will be desirable to publish them. I may venture to observe that the interest shewn, not only in England, but abroad, as proved by the favourable notices in the press of our publications, and by the addition to our list of members of several foreign Societies connected with historical research, should encourage us to persevere in collecting and including in our volumes documents of this nature.

I may avail myself of this opportunity to correct an erroneous statement which, misled by a history by one Cappatelli, of the patrician families of Venice, I made in my short preface to the published Despatches of Suriano and Barbaro. It was not Marc' Antonio Barbaro who was ambassador to Henry VIII., but a member of the same family who represented the Republic at the court of Henry VII. who received an addition of roses to his coat of arms. Those who

posses the sixth volume of our "Publications" will have the kindness to make this correction.

The Venetian archives also contain the records of the proceedings of the Inquisition, and I have found amongst them, curious reports of trials of "heretics," principally persons accused of professing Lutheran opinions, some of whom heroically suffered torture and death rather than renounce their faith. It might be of interest to have copies made of some of them.

Residing, as I do, for so great a part of the year in Italy, I have been much gratified by our having recently entered into correspondence with the Royal Historical Society at Rome, (the Reale Società Romana di Storia Patria), and by the election of its distinguished President, Count Ugo Balzani, as one of our Honorary Fellows. We have arranged for an interchange of publications with the Italian Society, and have received a very valuable set of books from them for our Library. These include the fifteen volumes of the Society's "Archivio" or Transactions, which are full of the most interesting papers on a great variety of subjects. Many of them, of course, treat of matters of purely Italian history and antiquities, but I would call your attention to one, which deals more nearly with our own special branch of study. This comprises a series of documents transcribed by Signor Fontana from the archives of the Vatican on the spread of the Lutheran reformation (or heresy' as it was styled) in Italy. Signor Fontana's industry has placed before us no less than 150 papal briefs, citations, etc., addressed to a number of different people, and referring to the "eresia luterana" in many different places. These documents are highly curious, and often of painful interest, as authentic evidence of the view taken by successive Popes of the proper mode of dealing with the increasing spread of the reformed faith itself, or of more liberal religious opinions than were agreeable to the Holy See. I will quote instances from two of Signor Fontana's transcripts which are connected with parts of Italy in which, perhaps, I take a greater interest than in any other, viz., Venice and Piedmont. On the 23rd of June, 1547, I find Paul III. writing to Giovanni, Archbishop of Benevento, then papal Nuncio at Venice, confirming and extending an authority previously granted to him to proceed against heretics, and holding him blameless even should he go so far as the shedding of their blood, mutilation of their limbs, or death itself, (sententias etiam sanguinis et mutilationis membrorum, ac ultimi supplicii promulgare).

In the present day, with the more humane and tolerant spirit which I would fain believe is shared alike by all branches of the Christian Church, it is almost impossible for us to realize that such barbarous orders as these words imply should have been deliberately issued by the highest ecclesiastic in Europe, and, as we may assume, have been cheerfully and unhesitatingly carried out by his representative.

Again, on the 3rd of June, 1566, Pius V. addressed a brief to Ludovico Birago, Lieutenant of His Majesty, the Most Christian King, at Saluzzo in the Duchy of Savoy, directing him to expel from the Duchy and treat with the utmost rigour, the Huguenots then in that district. In this brief the Pope states that it is his first duty and care to keep in the right path the flock entrusted to him by God, and that he has ever considered this duty should be diligently performed by him, night and day, with all his heart, and mind, and strength, (id nempe die noctuque tota mente, toto corde, totis denique viribus nostris accuratissime efficiendum nobis semper esse censuimus). He then proceeds to say,-" When therefore, it was reported to us that certain exiles and fugitives belonging to the new and most pernicious sect called Huguenots had betaken themselves from Savoy to Lyons, and from the Piedmontese districts to Saluzzo, wandering about at their free-will; that, moreover, many of these most abandoned wretches, ministers of Satan, were daily endeavouring to sow the seeds of their deadly and diabolical heresy throughout the whole country; it seemed good to us to give you our paternal advice on the subject, first commending you for the pious and catholic disposition you have already shewn in striving to prevent all such heretics from setting foot within the limits of your jurisdiction. We therefore exhort and urgently demand of you, that, should these heretics nevertheless chance to find their way into any spot subject to your authority, you thrust them out and expel them therefrom. Moreover, should they in spite of you, endeavour to spread their seditious and schismatical doctrines, you are to take care that they be seized and punished. You will thus manifest your devotion to us and to the Holy Apostolic See, and cause the people to be preserved safe and unspotted in the true faith. Such action. on your part will be most acceptable to Heaven and to us, and most beneficial to the maintenance of His Most Christian Majesty's authority. You yourself also will thus win the reward of life everlasting, and the commendation of all good men."

Such was the view taken of persecution in the latter half of the sixteenth century by the head of the Roman Catholic Church, who went out of his way, not merely to put in operation the rigours of the ecclesiastical law, but also to stir up the representative of the civil power to the extremest measures against a few poor, harmless, inoffensive exiles.

In addition to these documents from the Vatican, I also find an interesting note by Signor Fontana on the residence in Ferrara of the celebrated Clement Marot, whose name is so familiar to us as the joint-author with Théodore de Bèze of the metrical version of the Psalter in French. This account of Marot is contained in a form of process against certain heretics at Ferrara, dated April 28, 1536, and now preserved in the archives of Modena, which process also mentions another Frenchman, a refugee named Cornelion.

These extracts from the archives of the Vatican and of Modena, together with the result of Signor Bertolotti's investigations at Mantua, embodied in his book entitled "Martiri del libro Pensiero," a copy of which he has been good enough to present to us, and my own researches at Venice, induce me to believe that a wide and almost untrodden field is open in Italy to the the student of Huguenot history, and that much remains to be added to the well-known work of Cesare Cantù, "Gli Eretici d'Italia." As an English Society, the work immediately before us is, of course, that of gathering together in an accessible form all the information we can collect regarding the refugees in our own country. At the same time we may occasionally find it advisable to vary our labours by going futher afield (as indeed we have already done in the case of the Registers of the Church at Guisnes, and the Despatches of the Venetian ambassadors, Suriano and Barbaro,) and, at all events, I would impress upon you the benefit that might accrue to the Society from the researches of any of its Fellows who may occasionally find themselves in some Italian city with a few hours or days of leisure which they could devote to the examination of its archives. I venture to say that they would find this a pleasant and, probably, a not unprofitable relaxation from the fatigues of the regular routine of a tourist's sight-seeing. My remark applies equally well to all countries and places. The Huguenots went everywhere; and wherever we go we should keep our eyes open for traces of them. The smallest detail may be of interest and, if not important in itself, may lead to the discovery of something that is.

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