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Rohan arrived in Venice in the spring of 1630, and renewed his offer of raising troops for the Republic. On the 3rd June the Senate agreed to accept his services simply as a "condottiere" (circa la semplice condotta), naming Domenico Ruzini, the "Savio della Scrittura" (the Senator who had the management of military affairs) to settle the conditions. This decision was communicated to the French Ambassador.

Ruzini addressed a long report to the Senate on the result of his mission. On his return to his house, he states, he found Rohan's secretary waiting for him. The Duke had already learnt from the Signor d'Avo (? d'Avaux) the French Ambassador, what had taken place in the Senate, and desired to know where it would be convenient for Ruzini to receive him. The latter replied that he would not put the Duke to the inconvenience of coming to his house; but that he would meet him at the 20th hour at San Giorgio. Accordingly Ruzini was punctual at his appointment, and Rohan who had already arrived, came out of the church to meet him. They then entered the cloisters, and Ruzini informed the Duke of the decision of the Senate, and that he had been deputed to learn from His Excellency himself his intentions as regarded his command (condotta), and the levies which he proposed to raise, and which he, Ruzini, thought, should not, when the public interests and his own distinguished position were considered, be less than ten thousand foot soldiers (fanti) with the undertaking to furnish six thousand at once.

Rohan replied that for many years he had felt the strongest desire to serve the Republic, and that he had so informed its Ambassador, Pesaro, and others. He had recently left France, he said, for Venice, with the determination to render the State the most faithful and zealous services. That, as to his stipend, he placed himself entirely in the hands of the Republic, and that he would never pretend to interfere with any one else's command or charge, but that he would be ready to serve where and in what manner he might be required.

A long discussion then took place between them as to the conditions of the "condotta," which Ruzini reported in full to the Senate. Rohan agreed to raise with the permission and assent of the King-ten thousand foot-soldiers, binding himself to furnish six thousand at once, although the number was very large. But should His Majesty be unwilling to consent to so large a levy in his kingdom, Rohan undertook to find, with the help of his brother, two thousand foot soldiers in England and Scotland.

In answer to a question from Ruzini, Rohan stated that, when he left France, the King gave him to understand that he would permit the proposed levies, that he had no reason to believe that His Majesty had changed his mind, and that, as the Duchess, his wife, would shortly pass through France, she would expedite the matter by her urgent representations.

Ruzini insisted that the levies should be brought by ships to the Lido, by Rohan, without any assistance from the Republic. The Duke replied that he would do as Signor de Candales (another Frenchman in the service of the Republic) had done; but to this Ruzini would not consent.

Another meeting took place between them after dinner, on the 6th June, in the Ducal Palace-during which the conditions of the "condotta" were again discussed. According to Ruzini the payment to the Duc de Candales, the disembarcation of the levies at the Lido and everything else included, amounted to thirty-two and a half ducats per head, for officers and men; whilst Rohan demanded twenty-six scudi (of nine lire), which would amount to little less than thirty-eight ducats for each soldier. After two hours haggling and bargaining, the Duke agreed to the same terms as those made with Candaleson condition that he was not to be responsible for men who died after embarcation. He further bound himself to land his men free of charge to the Republic, in a Venetian port.

As to his own stipend, Rohan declared that he would not be treated in any way differently from the Duc de Candales, who received yearly six thousand ducats, with the addition of twelve hundred to be divided between four captains, whom he would himself name.

Accordingly a contract in seventeen Articles was drawn up, in which Rohan bound himself, upon the terms agreed upon, to employ these levies as garrisons or in the field, in all places whether on land or at sea, and against all whom he might be called upon to serve. In the appendix will be found Ruzini's report,* and the contract which enters into the fullest details-so careful was the Republic that nothing should be omitted in its dealings with foreigners in its employment. This contract was submitted to the Senate on the 11th June and approved by one hundred and forty-four votes with only one dissentient. The Duke further engaged himself to serve for five years with two additional years "di rispetto" or grace (per anni cinque di fermo, et due di rispetto.) These are the precise words employed by the Italian States in the * Appendix No. ii.


fourteenth and fifteenth centuries when engaging "Condottieri." In fact the Duc de Rohan entered the service of the republic in that capacity, and is frequently called in official documents. "nostro stipendiato."

These conditions having been settled, a letter to be addressed by the Doge to the King of France, informing His Majesty of the agreement entered into with Rohan, was approved by the Senate.1

In November of 1630, Rohan was in Padua whence he addressed a highly important and interesting letter to the Doge. It commences with some very laudatory observations on the Venetian Republic-the liberty it enjoyed and the high position it had acquired, by its wisdom and courage, among the nations. He then gives a sketch of the political condition of Italy, and the attempt made by the King of Spain to bring the various Italian states under his dominion, which had led to an alliance between the Republic and France, destined, he trusted, to drive the Spaniard between the seas and the Pyrenees. But he expresses dissatisfaction at the state of the army of the Republic, and states the reasons of its inefficient condition, one of them being that the different charges (carichi) were not properly understood or defined. He then proceeds to describe what should be the respective duties of a General of Cavalry, of Infantry, and of Artillery, and of the Quarter Master General (Mastro di Campo Generale) and how an army should be constituted.2

Rohan addressed a second letter to the Doge, probably about the same time, and from the same place.3 It is preserved in the Archives and is without date. It refers to the designs of the House of Austria on the Italian States, and gives counsel to the Republic as to the measures to be taken for its defence. He especially dwells upon the proper constitution and employment of a well disciplined and efficient, though limited army. He recommends the Doge and Senate to follow the example of Holland, whose policy and defensive measures he greatly extols. "Through them," he writes, "the Low "Countries govern themselves, and in these respects Republics can do better than monarchies, which depend for their policy and action (norme et ordine) upon the caprice of the King alone, or upon the whim (extravaganza) of a favorite. These

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'things," he adds, are "worthy of the serious consideration of "this great Republic, which can easily acquire the glory of "being as great in war as she is in peace."

In the following year (1631) Rohan was still at Padua. In a letter from that city, dated 2nd Jan., read in the Senate,' he complains of the delay in raising the levies, which he attributes to the Ambassador of the Republic in France, and to the hopes of peace which had lessened the zeal previously shewn by that official in the business. He considered peace very doubtful. A treaty had been concluded with the Emperor; but the King of Spain had refused to be included in it, thinking with his usual cunning to gain time until "Cazale" (?Cassel) had fallen. The King, his Master, having succoured "Cazale," had refused to ratify the treaty, except in those articles which extended the power of his Ambassadors. Everyone was preparing for war, and the house of Austria was ready to avail itself of anything to its advantage. Rohan advises the Republic also to prepare resolutely for war, and to press on the raising of the levies.


A further letter addressed by Rohan to the "Collegio di Generali e Genti da Guerra on the 25th Feb. was read in the Senate.2 "Il Mazzarino" (Cardinal Mazarin) he writes, had not satisfied the King as he had expected, and His Majesty had sent the Signor di Altariva (?Hauterive), the brother of the keeper of the seals, to Holland with large offers of money to induce the Prince of Orange to take the field. Rohan gives at length the following reason for doubting of peace; "The King, my master, besides the great aversion which he bears to the Spaniards, has given full authority in the affairs of France to the Cardinal de Richelieu, the author and encourager (it may be said) of French perseverance in these matters." He had discovered that the raising of his levies had been much delayed in consequence of false reports spread by evilly disposed persons, who had given the King to understand that to send men to Venice was sending them to certain destruction, the ill success of the previous year having proved that the Republic was not so well fitted for war as for negotiations. But the Duchess, his wife, in an audience with the Minister of State, had been able to remove this impression. It appears from the minute of a despatch from the Senate to the "Rettore," or Governor, of Vicenza, that Rohan was

1 Appendix ix.

The letter appears to have been addressed to the "Collegio di Generali e Genti da Guerra "a kind of "War Office,"

2 Appendix x.

enployed in July, 1631, in fortifying that city. A question had arisen between him and the Duke de Candales upon his refusal to attend a Council of War unless he were given the precedence, and Zorzi, the "Proveditore Generale," was directed to take Rohan's opinion separately.

On the 17th October, Rohan was summoned to appear in the Senate where a communication which had been made to the Signor d'Avo, the French Ambassador, respecting the levies, was read to him, and in which his zeal and fidelity were highly commended,1 and reliance expressed upon his efforts to serve the Republic.

A despatch addressed to the Venetian Ambassadors in Spain and other countries, read in the Senate on the 29th Nov. 1631,2 stated that Rohan had entered into communication with the Grisons who were aiming at independence under the protection of France. These proceedings on his part rendered some observations necessary, and moved the Senate to inform their representatives abroad of the true state of things-not in order to justify the conduct of the Republic, which would not be consistent with the dignity of a free state (decoro di sua libertà); but that they might, if necessary, meet and expose any doubts as to the rectitude of their intentions. "The Signor de Rohan," they declared, "came to Venice when the King of France considered it desirable that he should leave "his kingdom (hebbe per buona la lontananza di lui dal Regno). "It was only to please His Majesty that he was retained as a "stipendiary by the Republic, which, however, had never had "occasion to avail itself of his services. The Grisons being desirous of having him with them, he had asked for permission to leave. As he was in the pay of the State, "the Senate had hesitated to grant it; but being again. "pressed by the Grisons he had gone off to them. This was the whole truth. Rohan had not joined the Grisons either with the permission of the Senate or by its instructions, nor in any official capacity."


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The next document relating to Rohan which I have found in the Venice Archives is a letter addressed by him on the 8th March, 1632, from Coire to Alvisi Zorzi, in which he says that, having left Venice without a public or formal leave, or licence, and without stating his reasons for so doing to the Senate, it could only be supposed that he had done so in

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