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family devolving to the crown, it was annexed to the honour of Ampthill: the manor-house is now occupied as a school-house.

CANDLESBY, a parish in the Wold division of the wapentake of CANDLESHOE, parts of LINDSEY, county of LINCOLN, 34 miles (E. by N.) from Spilsby, containing 251 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, in the archdeaconry and diocese of Lincoln, rated in the king's books at £9. 19. 4., and in the patronage of the President and Fellows of Magdalene College, Oxford. The church is dedicated to St. Benedict.

CANDOVER (BROWN), a parish in the hundred of MAINSBOROUGH, Fawley division of the county of SOUTHAMPTON, 43 miles (N. by W.) from New Alresford, containing 274 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, with the perpetual curacy of Woodmancot annexed, in the archdeaconry and diocese of Winchester, rated in the king's books at £23. 4. 2., and in the patronage of Alexander Baring, Esq. The church is dedicated to St. Peter.

CANDOVER (CHILTON), a parish in the hundred of MAINSBOROUGH, Fawley division of the county of SOUTHAMPTON, 5 miles (N.) from New Alresford, containing 87 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, in the archdeaconry and diocese of Winchester, rated in the king's books at £6. 6. 3., and in the patronage of Alexander Baring, Esq. The church is dedicated to St. Nicholas.

CANDOVER (PRESTON), a parish in the hundred of BERMONDSPIT, Basingstoke division of the county of SOUTHAMPTON, 6 miles (N. by E.) from New Alresford, containing 472 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, with the perpetual curacy of Nutley annexed, in the archdeaconry and diocese of Winchester, rated in the king's books at £18, endowed with £300 private benefaction, and £200 royal bounty, and in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of Winchester. The church is dedicated to St. Mary. Thomas Hall, in 1772, bequeathed £4. 4. per annum for the instruction of six poor children.

CANEWDON, a parish in the hundred of RоCHFORD, County of ESSEX, 3 miles (N. E. by N.) from Rochford, containing 732 inhabitants. The living is a vicarage, in the archdeaconry of Essex, and diocese of London, rated in the king's books at £34. 1. 8., and in the patronage of the Bishop of London. The church, dedicated to St. Nicholas, is a large structure in the later style of English architecture, with a massive western tower. Canute the Dane kept his court at Canewdon, from which circumstance its name is supposed to have been derived. The intrenchments of a strong encampment, supposed also to be Danish, including about six acres, encircle the manor-house. The river Crouch and Canewdon creek are navigable on the north of this parish.

CANFIELD (GREAT), a parish in the hundred of DUNMOW, County of ESSEX, 34 miles (S. W.) from Great Dunmow, containing 434 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, in the archdeaconry of Middlesex, and diocese of London, rated in the king's books at £13, endowed with £600 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of J. M. Wilson, Esq. Here are the keepmount and intrenchments of a castle, from which this place was anciently called Canfield ad Castrum, or CastleCanfield.

CANFIELD (LITTLE), a parish in the hundred of DUNMOW, county of ESSEX, 24 miles (W. by S.) from Great Dunmow, containing 249 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, in the archdeaconry of Middlesex, and diocese of London, rated in the king's books at £12. 0.7., and in the patronage of the Master and Fellows of Christ's College, Cambridge.

CANFORD (GREAT), a parish in the hundred of COGDEAN, Shaston (East) division of the county of DORSET, 24 miles (S. E. by E.) from Wimborne-Minster, comprising the chapelry of Kingston, and the tythings of Longfleet and Parkston, and containing 2696 inhabitants. The living is a vicarage, and a royal peculiar (including the town and county of the town of Poole, which was formerly in this parish), within the jurisdiction of the lord of the manor, rated in the king's books at £11.9. 9., and in the patronage of G. T. Brice, Esq. The church is a small building on a singular plan; it has a nave and a chancel, with a north aisle to each, and the tower is situated between these two aisles; there is also a south aisle to the nave and a south chapel to the chancel: one hundred and sixty-one additional sittings, one hundred and twenty-one of which are free, have been recently erected, the Incorporated Society for the enlargement of churches and chapels having granted £100 for that purpose. The navigable river Stour runs on the north of this parish, where it is crossed by a bridge on the Poole and Wimborne road.

CANN (ST. RUMBOLD), a parish in that part of the hundred of SIXPENNY-HANDLEY which is in the Shaston (West) division of the county of DORSET, 1 mile (S. E.) from Shaftesbury, containing 365 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, in the archdeaconry of Dorset, and diocese of Bristol, rated in the king's books at £ 9. 2. 1., and in the patronage of the Earl of Shaftesbury.

CANNINGS (BISHOP'S), a parish in the hundred of POTTERNE and CANNINGS, County of WILTS, 3 miles (N. E.) from Devizes, containing, with the chapelry of St. James, and the tything of Chittoe, 2722 inhabitants. The living is a vicarage, in the peculiar jurisdiction and patronage of the Dean and Chapter of Salisbury, rated in the king's books at £17. 19. 2. The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is a large and handsome structure, in the early style of English architecture.

CANNINGTON, a parish in the hundred of CANNINGTON, County of SOMERSET, 3 miles (N. W. by W.) from Bridg-water, containing, with the hamlet of Edstock, with Beer, 1228 inhabitants. The living is a vicarage, in the archdeaconry of Taunton, and diocese of Bath and Wells, rated in the king's books at £7. 10. 10., and in the patronage of W. Hodges, Esq. The church is dedicated to St. Mary. This is a place of considerable antiquity, having given name to the hundred, and it was once of much greater importance. Camden derives its name from having been occupied by a tribe of Britons, called the Cangi. The navigable river Parretflows on the north and east sides of this parish; and from a small harbour, called Coombwich, it is in contemplation to construct a canal to Bridg-water, to enable large vessels to sail directly up to that port.. Mr. Rogers bequeathed £300 per ann., directing that £6 each should be annually given to twenty poor men, and the remainder to the poor of the parish generally. This was formerly the residence of the Cliffords, and

is supposed to have been the birthplace of Fair Rosamond. A Benedictine nunnery was founded, in the reign of Stephen, by Robert de Courcy, and dedicated to the Blessed Virgin; it consisted of a prioress and six or seven nuns, whose revenue was estimated at £39. 15. 8. The buildings are now occupied by a society of nuns, who observe the rules of St. Benedict.

'CANNOCK, a parish in the eastern division of the hundred of CUTTLESTONE, County of STAFFORD, comprising the townships of Cannock, Cannock-Wood, Cheslyn-Hay, Hednesford with Leacroft, Huntington, and Great Wyrley, and containing 2780 inhabitants, of which number, 766 are in the township of Cannock, 4 miles (S. E. by E.) from Penkridge. The living, which is remarkable for having been the first preferment of the famous Dr. Sacheverell, is a perpetual curacy, in the peculiar jurisdiction and patronage of the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield, endowed with £15 per annum and £200 private benefaction, £200 royal bounty, and £1300 parliamentary grant. The church is dedicated to St. Luke. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyan Methodists. The village is supplied with water by means of a conduit and leaden pipes from Leacroft, about a mile distant, constructed by Bishop Hough. There are manufactories for edged tools at Church-bridge and Wedges Mill, which afford employment to about two hundred persons; the coal used is supplied from the immediate neighbourhood, as well as the iron-ore called Cannock-stone, or Cark, A court leet and a court baron are held annually, at which the constable and headborough, and the respective constables of the several townships, are chosen by juries; and special courts are called, when required, for the transfer of copyholds. Fairs are held on May 8th, August 24th, and October 6th, principally for cattle and sheep. A school, founded by John Wood, for the free education of children was, in 1727, enfeoffed with land by Thomas Wood, the income of which is £8 per annum; and John Biddulph, Esq. gave a meadow and garden for the use of the schoolmaster; there are thirty scholars, but none are taught free at present. In 1725, Mrs. M. Chapman bequeathed a small sum for the education of three or four children. A National school has also been recently erected at the expense of Mrs. Walhouse. This place in ancient times was a forest or chase belonging to the Mercian kings. Castle Ring, situated on the summit of Castle Hill, and supposed to have been a British encampment, is nearly a circular area of eight or ten acres, surrounded by a double trench occupying three or four acres more, exhibiting traces at its northern and southern entrances of various advanced works. Near it are the remains of a moat, enclosing an oblong square of about three acres, named the Old Nunnery, where a Cistercian jabbey was founded in the reign of Stephen, which was shortly after removed to Stoneleigh in Warwickshire: a similar enclosure at a small distance is called the Moat Bank.

CANNOCK-WOOD, a township in the parish of CANNOCK, eastern division of the hundred of CUTTLESTONE, county of STAFFORD, containing 355 inhabit


CANNONBY (CROSS), a parish in ALLERDALE ward below Derwent, county of CUMBERLAND, com-, prising the market town and chapelry of Maryport, and the townships of Birkby, Cross-Cannonby, and Crosby,

and containing 3870 inhabitants, of which number, 60 are in the township of Cross-Cannonby, 23 miles (N. E. by E.) from Maryport. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the archdeaconry and diocese of Carlisle, endowed with £1400 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of Carlisle. The church, dedicated to St. John, is of early Norman architecture. This parish lies on the shore of the Solway Frith, and is bounded on the south by the river Ellen: it contains coal and freestone, and in a quarry of the latter, implements supposed to be Roman were found some years ago, from which it is thought that the stone used in erecting the Roman station at Ellenborough was obtained here.

CANON-PION, a parish in the hundred of GRIMSWORTH, County of HEREFORD, 4 miles (S. E. by E.) from Weobley, containing 634 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, in the peculiar jurisdiction of the Dean of Hereford, rated in the king's books at £5. 13. 6, and in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of Hereford. The church, dedicated to St. Lawrence, is principally in the early style of English architecture, with some fine screen-work; the font is ancient, with an octagonal top enriched with quatrefoil. A court leet is held once a year.

CANON-TEIGN, a hamlet in the parish of CHRISTow, hundred of WONFORD, county of DEVON, 44 miles (N. W. by N.) from Chudleigh. The population is returned with the parish. Here was formerly a chapel of ease.

CANTELOSE, or CANTELOFF, a parish in the hundred of HUMBLEYARD, county of NORFOLK, 4 miles (S. W.) from Norwich. The living is a rectory, annexed to the rectory of Hetherset in 1397, in the archdeaconry and diocese of Norwich. The church, which was dedicated to All Saints, was served as a free chapel from the time of its annexation until the Reformation, when it was demolished.



CANTERBURY, ancient city, and a county of itself, having separate jurisdiction, locally in the hundred of Bridge and Petham, lathe of ST. AUGUSTINE, eastern division of the county of KENT, 26 miles (S. E. by E.) from Rochester, 16 (N. W. by W.) from Dovor, and 55 (E. by S.) from London, containing 12,745 inhabitants, and, including the suburbs and portions of parishes which are without the liberties of the city, 15,373. This place, the origin of which is not distinctly known, is, from the discovery of numerous Druidical relics, supposed to have been distinguished at a very early period for the celebration of the religious rites of the Britons, prior to the Christian era. That it was a British town of considerable importance before the Roman invasion, is not only confirmed by the numerous celts, and other instruments of British warfare, that have been at various times found in the vicinity, but by the name of the station which the Romans fixed here on their establishment in the island, and which they called Durovernum, a name obviously derived from the British Dwr, a stream




whern, swift, being characteristic of the Stour, upon
From this station three roads
which it is situated.
branched off to Rhutupis, Dubræ, and Lemanum, now
Richborough, Dovor, and Limne. By the Saxons, who,
on their arrival in Britain, were established in this part
of Kent, it was called Cantwara-byrig, from which its
Canterbury was
present name is evidently deduced.
the metropolis of the Saxon kingdom of Kent, and the
residence of its kings, of whom Ethelbert having married
Bertha of France, who had been educated in the prin-
ciples of Christianity, allowed her by treaty the free
exercise of her religion, and suffered her to bring over
with her a limited number of ecclesiastics. The Chris-
tian religion had been partially promulgated during the
occupation of the city by the Romans, and two churches
had been built in the second century, one of which, on
Bertha's arrival, was consecrated for her use by the
Bishop of Soissons, and dedicated to St. Martin. During
the reign of this monarch, Augustine, who had been
sent by Pope Gregory to convert the Britons to Chris-
tianity, took up his station at Canterbury, where,
through the influence of Bertha, he was courteously
received his mission was attended with success; the
king, who soon became a convert, resigned to him his
palace, which he converted into a priory for brethren of
his own order; and, in conjunction with Ethelbert, he
founded an abbey without the city walls, dedicated to
St. Peter and St. Paul. Being invested by the pope with
the dignity of an archbishop, he made this city the seat
of the metropolitan see, which distinction it has re-
tained for more than twelve centuries, under an unin-
terrupted succession of ninety archbishops, many of
whom have been eminent for their talents and their
virtues, and distinguished by the important offices they
have held in the administration of the temporal affairs
of the kingdom. Among these may be noticed Dunstan,
who governed the kingdom with absolute authority
during the reigns of Edred and Edwy; Stigand, who,
for his opposition to William the Conqueror, was dis-
placed from his see; Lanfranc, his successor, who
rebuilt the cathedral, and founded several religious
establishments; the celebrated Thomas à Becket;
Stephen Langton, who was raised to the see in defiance
of King John; Cranmer, who, for his zeal in promot-
ing the Reformation, was burnt at the stake in the reign
of Mary; and Laud, who, for his strenuous support of
the measures of his sovereign, Charles I., was beheaded
The abbey was
during the usurpation of Cromwell.
intended as a place of sepulture for the successors of
the archbishop in the see of Canterbury, and for those
of the monarch in the kingdom of Kent: the cathedral,
which was not completed at the time of Augustine's
decease, was dedicated to our Saviour, and is still usual-
ly called Christ Church.

The city suffered frequently from the ravages of the
Danes, of whom, on their advancing against it in 1009,
the inhabitants, by the advice of Archbishop Siricius,
purchased a peace for the sum of £30,000, obtaining from
them an oath not to renew their aggressions; but in 1011,
they again landed at Sandwich, and laid siege to the city,
which, after a resolute defence for three weeks on the
part of the inhabitants, they took by storm and reduced
to ashes. In this siege, forty-three thousand two hun-
dred persons were slain, more than eight thousand of the
inhabitants were massacred, and among the prisoners

whom they carried off to their camp at Greenwich was
Alphege, the archbishop, whom they afterwards put to
death at Blackheath, for refusing to sanction their ex-
tortions. Canute, after his usurpation of the throne
to the rebuilding of the city, and the restoration of the
upon the death of Edmund Ironside, contributed greatly
cathedral; and, placing his crown upon the altar,
the revenue of the port of Sandwich for the support of
the monks. From this time the city began to revive,
and continued to flourish till the Norman Conquest,
and magnificence. In Domesday-book it is described,
when, according to Stowe, it surpassed London in extent
under the title "Civitas Cantuariæ," as a populous city,
having a castle, which, as there is no previous mention
Saxon subjects in awe; the remains now visible are
of it, was probably built by the Conqueror, to keep his
evidently of Norman character. In 1080, the cathedral
was destroyed by fire, but was restored with great splen-
dour, and dedicated to the Holy Trinity, by Archbishop
Lanfranc, who rebuilt the monastic edifices, erected the
archbishop's palace, founded and endowed a priory,
which he dedicated to St. Gregory, and built the hos-
was nearly consumed by fire, and it suffered materially
pitals of St. John and St. Nicholas. In 1161, the city
In 1170, the memorable murder of Thomas à Becket
from a similar calamity at several subsequent periods.
was perpetrated in the cathedral, as he was ascending
the steps leading from the nave into the choir: his sub-
and the church, by the costly offerings of numerous
sequent canonization tended greatly to enrich the city
pilgrims of all ranks, who came not only from every
to visit his shrine. From this source a rich fund was
part of England, but from every place in Christendom,
obtained for the enlargement and embellishment of the
cathedral, which rapidly recovered from the repeated
devastations to which it was exposed, and from which
it invariably arose with increased magnificence. Four
years after the murder of Becket, Henry II. performed a
pilgrimage to Canterbury, where, prostrating himself
before the shrine of the martyr, he submitted to be
In 1299, the nuptials of Edward I. and
that purpose.
scourged by the monks, whom he had assembled for
Margaret of Anjou were celebrated with great pomp in
this city, which, in the reign of Edward IV., was consti-
tuted a county of itself, under the designation of the
"City and County of the City of Canterbury." Little
city, the interests of which were so closely interwoven
variety henceforward occurs in the civil history of this
with the ecclesiastical establishments, that, upon their
materially declined.
dissolution in the reign of Henry VIII., its prosperity

The jubilees which, by indulgence of the pope, were celebrated every fiftieth year, in honour of St. Thomas à Becket, caused a great influx of wealth into the city, which owed much of its trade to the immense number of pilgrims who came to visit his shrine: according to sons attended the fifth jubilee, in 1420, when the numThe the civic records, more than one hundred thousand perber and richness of their offerings were incredible; the last of these jubilees was celebrated in 1520. dissolution of the priory of Christ Church was effected gradually the festivals in honour of the martyr were of its costly ornaments, and the bones of the saint were, successively abolished, his gorgeous shrine was stripped according to Stowe, ultimately burnt to ashes, and scat


tered to the winds: the revenue, at the dissolution, was estimated at £2489. 4. 9., a sum greatly inferior to the actual value of its numerous and extensive possessions. At this period part of the monastery of St. Augustine was converted by Henry VIII. into a royal palace, in which Queen Elizabeth held her court for several days. During her reign, the Walloons, driven from the Nether lands by persecution on account of their religious tenets, found an asylum at Canterbury, where they introduced the weaving of silk and stuffs; their descendants are still numerous in the city and its neighbourhood, and continue to use, as their place of worship, the crypt under the cathedral, which was granted to them by Elizabeth, and where the service is performed in the French language. Charles I., in 1625, solemnized his marriage with Henrietta Maria of France at this place; and during the war in the reign of that monarch, the city was occupied by a regiment of Cromwell's horse, that committed great havoc in the ecclesiastical buildings, and wantonly mutilated and defaced the cathedral, which they used as stabling for their horses. A political tumult occurred in 1647, in which originated the celebrated Kentish Association in favour of Charles I., that terminated in the siege of Colchester, and in the execution, after its capture, of Lord Capel, Sir Charles Lucas, and Sir George Lisle. Charles II., on his return from France at the Restoration, held his court in the royal palace at Canterbury, for three days; and, in 1676, that monarch granted a charter of incorporation to the emigrant silkweavers settled in this city, who, on the revocation of the edict of Nantes in 1685, were joined by a considerable number of other artizans from France.

The city is pleasantly situated in a fertile vale environed with gently rising hills, from which numerous streams of excellent water descend, and is intersected by the river Stour, which, dividing and re-uniting its stream, forms several islands, on one of which, anciently called Birmewith, the western part of it is built. It still occupies the original site, and is of an elliptic form; the Romans surrounded it with walls that appear to have been built of flint and chalk, and to have included an area one mile and three quarters in circumference, defended by a moat one hundred and fifty feet in width; of these nearly the whole is remaining, and on that part which forms the terrace of the promenade, called Dane John Field, are four of the ancient towers in good preservation; the arches over the river have been taken down at various times, and of the six gates that formed the principal entrances, only the west gate, through which is the entrance from the London road, is standing; it is a handsome embattled structure, erected about the year 1380, by Archbishop Sudbury, who also rebuilt a considerable portion of the city wall, and consists of a centre flanked by two round towers, having their foundations in the bed of the western branch of the Stour, over which is a stone bridge of two arches, that has been widened for the accommodation of carriages and foot passengers, an approach having been cut through the city walls for each. The principal streets, intersecting at right angles, and the smaller streets, were originally paved under an act of parliament obtained in the reign of Edward IV.; they were subsequently made more convenient by an act passed in 1787, for the improvement of the city, and are now lighted with gas by a company

established under an act obtained in 1822: the inhabitants are amply supplied with water conveyed into their houses from the river, by a company established in 1824, by act of parliament; and with excellent spring water brought from St. Martin's Hill, into a spacious conduit in one of the ancient towers on the city wall, whence it is distributed to the most populous parts of the city, at the expense of the corporation. The houses in some parts retain their ancient appearance, with the upper stories projecting; the greater part of the old Checquers Inn, mentioned by Chaucer, as frequented by pilgrims visiting Becket's shrine, has been converted into a range of dwelling-houses, extending from St. Bredman's church nearly half-way down Mercery-lane; and the remains of the palace of Sir Thomas More, in the dancing-school yard in Orange-street, are now used as a warehouse for wool: in other parts of the city the houses are in general handsome, and many of them modern and well built.

The environs are pleasant, and the surrounding scenery is agreeably diversified with simple and picturesque beauty on the road leading into the Isle of Thanet are extensive barracks for cavalry, artillery, and infantry of the line the cavalry barracks, erected in 1794, at an expense of £40,000, are a handsome range of brick building, occupying three sides of a quadrangle, and, with the several parades and grounds for exercise, comprise sixteen acres, enclosed with lofty iron palisades: the barracks for two thousand infantry, erected near the former in 1798, have been since made a permanent station for detachments of the royal horse and foot artillery: the barracks erected on the site of St. Gregory's priory, and in other parts of the city, have been taken down, and new streets of small houses occupy their places. To the south is Dane John Field, so called from a lofty conical mount said to have been thrown up by the Danes, when they besieged the city, or, more probably from its having been the site of a keep or donjon; it is tastefully laid out in spiral walks and shrubberies, and planted with lime-trees: on the city wall, by which it is bounded to the south-east, is a fine broad terrace with sloping declivities covered with turf; on the promenade is a sun-dial, supported on a handsome marble pedestal, sculptured with emblematical representations of the seasons, by Mr. Henry Weeks, a native artist: on the summit of the mount, from which a fine panoramic view of the city and its environs is obtained, a stone pillar has been erected, with tablets recording, among other benefactions, a vote of £60 per annum by the corporation for keeping the promenade in order. The Philosophical and Literary Institution is a chaste and elegant edifice of the Ionic order, with a handsome portico of four columns, erected by subscription in 1825, after the model of a temple on the river Illyssus in Greece: it comprises a spacious museum, in which an extensive and valuable collection of minerals, fossils, and natural curiosities, collected by Mr. W. Masters, Mrs. Masters, and others, is scientifically arranged in an order peculiarly adapted to assist the student in natural history, also an extensive and well assorted library, and a theatre, in which lectures on literary and scientific subjects are delivered every Tuesday evening throughout the year; the museum is open to the public daily, the price of admission being one shilling each. The theatre, a neat and commodious edifice, erected by Mrs.

Sarah Baker, was opened in 1790: opposite to it is a concert-room belonging to the members of the Catch Club, in which subscription concerts take place every Wednesday evening during the winter months. Assemblies are held in a handsome suite of rooms built by subscription; and races take place, in the month of August, upon Barham Downs, within three miles of the city: the course, on which there is a commodious stand, has been greatly enlarged.


The manufacture of silk, established by the Walloons under the auspices of Queen Elizabeth, and which had flourished in such a degree as to obtain from Charles I. a charter of incorporation, gave place in 1789 to the introduction of the cotton-manufacture by Mr. John Callaway, master of the company of weavers, who discovered a method of interweaving silk with cotton in a fabric still known by the name of Canterbury, or Chamberry, muslin; what now remains of the silk manufacture, employing but few persons, is conducted by his grandson. A considerable trade in long wool is carried on, and there is an extensive manufactory for parchment; but the principal source of employment for the labouring class is the cultivation of hops, for the growth of which the soil is peculiarly favourable, and with extensive plantations of which the neighbourhood abounds a great quantity of corn is also produced in the vicinity, and forms a material part of its trade. The city is geologically situated on the plastic clay of the London basin, with which red bricks and tiles are made; and, at a short distance to the south-east, flint imbedded in chalk is found in abundance, from which lime of an excellent quality is produced. There are numerous mills on the banks of the river, several of them extensive, particularly that called the Abbot's mill, from its having anciently belonged to the abbey of St. Augustine; it is now the property of the corporation, by whom it was purchased in 1543. Canterbury has been long celebrated for its brawn. Frequent attempts, attended with considerable expense, have been made to improve the navigation of the river Stour: an act was obtained, in 1825, to make it navigable to Sandwich, and to construct a canal from that port to a harbour to be formed near Deal, but the undertaking has not yet been commenced. In the same year an act was obtained for the formation of a railway to Whitstable, whence there is a regular conveyance by water to London : this has been carried into effect, and promises to be of great advantage to the trade of the city. The market for cattle, corn, hops, and seeds, is on Saturday, and the market for provisions daily: the cattle market is held on the site of the ancient city moat, in the parish of St. George without the walls; the corn, hop, and seed market is held in a spacious room in the Corn and Hop Exchange, a handsome building of the composite order, recently erected, and ornamented with the city arms and appropriate devices, behind which is a spacious area for the daily market for meat and vegetables; the market for eggs, poultry, and butter, is held in the ancient butter market, near Christ Church gate; and there is a convenient marketplace for fish in St. Margaret's street: these markets are under the regulation of the corporation, by an act passed in 1824. The annual Michaelmas fair commences on the 10th of October, and continues during three market days.


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The city, which at the time of the Conquest was governed by a præpositus, or prefect, appointed by the king, received from Henry II. a charter conferring enculiar privileges, in addition to those it previously pejoyed. Henry III. granted the city to the inhabitants at a fee-farm rent of £60, and empowered the citizens to elect two bailiffs, who were superseded by a mayor in the reign of Henry VI., who granted them the privilege of choosing a coroner. Edward IV. confirmed the preceding charters, remitted more than one-fourth of the fee-farm rent, and constituted the city a county of itself. Henry VII. limited the number of aldermen to twelve, and the common council-men to twentyfour; and Henry VIII., by an act in the 35th of his reign, empowered the mayor and aldermen to levy a fine of six shillings and eightpence per day upon all strangers who should keep shops, or exercise any trade in the city. James I., in the sixth year of his reign, confirmed all the former charters and privileges, and re-incorporated the citizens, under the title of the mayor and commonalty of the city of Canterbury. The government, under these several charters, is vested in a mayor, recorder, twelve aldermen (including a chamberlain and sheriff), and twenty-four common council-men, assisted by a town-clerk, who is also coroner, a sword-bearer, mace-bearer, four serjeants at mace, and subordinate officers. The mayor is chosen on Holy-rood day by the freemen, from among the twelve aldermen, who nominate two of their own body for election, and is sworn into office on the festival of St. Michael; the aldermen are selected from the common council-men by a majority of their own body, and the common council-men are chosen from the resident freemen, in the same manner; the sheriff is chosen annually by a majority of the mayor and aldermen, from among the twelve aldermen; and the recorder, chamberlain, and town-clerk, are elected by a majority of the corporation. The mayor, recorder, and such of the aldermen as have passed the chair, are justices of the peace. The freedom of the city is inherited by birth, or acquired by servitude, gift, marriage with a freeman's daughter, and by purchase. power of purchasing their freedom was allowed to English-born Jews in 1829. The city is divided into six wards, named after the six ancient gates, over each of which two aldermen preside, who hold a court leet, with view of frankpledge, in October, when a constable, borseholder, and six commissioners of pavements are appointed for each ward. The corporation hold a court of burghmote on the first Tuesday in every month, at which the mayor or his deputy presides, assisted by the aldermen and common council-men, a majority of


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