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and, in the vicinity, one for the Society of Friends. A considerable quantity of cotton goods is made here. At the distance of a mile are vestiges of a Roman encampment.

ADDINGTON, a parish in the hundred and county of BUCKINGHAM, 12 mile (W. N. W.) from Winslow, containing 89 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, in the archdeaconry of Buckingham, and diocese of Lincoln, rated in the king's books at £ 9. 9. 7., and in the patronage of John Poulett, Esq. The church is dedicated to St. Mary. A small sum of money was bequeathed by Ann Busby, in 1736, for educating and apprenticing poor children. On the border of the parish is a place called "Gallows' Gap," where, in the reign of Edward III., a gallows was erected by one of the family of Molines, who, as lord of the barony, possessed the power of trying and executing capital offenders.

ADDINGTON, a parish in the hundred of LARKFIELD, lathe of AYLESFORD, county of KENT, 7 miles (N. W. by W.) from Maidstone, containing 228 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, in the archdeaconry and diocese of Rochester, rated in the king's books at £6. 6. 8., and in the patronage of the Hon. J. W. Stratford. The church is dedicated to St. Margaret. On an eminence, at a short distance from it, are the remains of a monument, supposed to be Druidical, consisting of a circle of stones, in some degree resembling Stonehenge, with a smaller circle situated to the north-west, near which copper swords, British coins, and other relics, have been discovered. In this parish is one of those land springs which are very common in the eastern part of Kent, called the Nailbourn: the stream breaks out with great impetuosity once in seven or eight years, directing its course into a trench dug for its reception, till it arrives at the Leybourn rivulet, the trout in which, at other times white, it turns to a red colour.

ADDINGTON, a parish in the first division of the hundred of WALLINGTON, County of SURREY, 3 miles (E. S. E.) from Croydon, containing 354 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, in the archdeaconry of Surrey, and diocese of Winchester, rated in the king's books at £4. 16. 5., and in the patronage of the Archbishop of Canterbury. The church is dedicated to St. Mary: in the chancel lie the remains of the late Archbishop Sutton. The manor of Addington is held by the singular tenure of making and presenting to the king, at his coronation, a mess of pottage, called maupygernon, subject to the performance of which a carucate of land here was granted to Tezelin, cook to William the Conqueror. On the brow of the hill adjoining Addington common are several low tumuli, in which urns have been found. Adjacent to the village is Addington Place, which, in 1807, was purchased by Dr. Sutton, Archbishop of Canterbury, with the funds arising from the sale of the archiepiscopal palace at Croydon. The mansion was originally erected by Alderman Trecothick, on the site of an ancient edifice said to have been a hunting seat of Henry VIII.; it was considerably enlarged and improved by Dr. Sutton, and is now being rebuilt by Dr. Howley, the present archbishop, for the future residence of the primates. A few years ago a water-spout burst on the adjacent eminences, and the water rushing into the village, destroyed considerable property there.

ADDINGTON (GREAT), a parish in the hundred of HUXLOE, county of NORTHAMPTON, 44 miles (S. W.) from Thrapston, containing 256 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, in the archdeaconry of Northampton, and diocese of Peterborough, rated in the king's books at £10. 12. 8., and in the patronage of the Rev. James Tyley. The church is dedicated to All Saints. parish communicates with the North Sea, through the Northampton canal and the river Nen, the former of which here divides into two branches.

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ADDINGTON (LITTLE), a parish in the hundred of HuXLOE, county of NORTHAMPTON, 3 miles (N.) from Higham-Ferrers, containing 233 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, in the archdeaconry of Northampton, and diocese of Peterborough, rated in the king's books at £7. 12., endowed with £400 private benefaction, and £400 royal bounty, and in the patron. age of T. Saunderson, Esq. The church is dedicated to St. Mary. There is a free school with a small en, dowment. This parish, like the preceding, has a communication with the North Sea by the same means.

ADDLE, a parish in the upper division of the wapentake of SKYRACK, West riding of the county of YORK, comprising the townships of Addle cum Eccup and Arthington, and containing 1028 inhabitants, of which number, 699 are in the township of Addle cum Eccup, 5 miles (N. N. W.) from Leeds. The living is a rectory, in the archdeaconry and diocese of York, rated in the king's books at £ 16. 3. 4., and in the patronage of the Representatives of the family of Arthington. The church, one of the purest existing specimens of Norman architecture, is dedicated to St. John the Baptist. There is a free school, endowed with a portion of the income arising from £150, the gift of an unknown individual. This place was anciently called Adhill from the Ada of the Saxons, and it was the site of the Burgodurum of the Romans. In 1702, traces of a Roman town, with some inscribed stones, many fragments of urns, and the remains of an aqueduct, were discovered on an adjacent moor.

ADDLETHORPE, a parish in the Marsh division of the wapentake of CANDLESHOE, parts of LINDSEY, county of LINCOLN, 9 miles (E. S. E.) from Alford, containing 176 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, in the archdeaconry and diocese of Lincoln, rated in the king's books at £9. 10. 2., and in the patronage of the Crown. The church is dedicated to St. Nicholas.

ADFORTON, a joint township with Payton and Grange, in the parish of LEINTWARDINE, hundred of WIGMORE, county of HEREFORD, 8 miles (W. S. W.) from Ludlow, containing, with Payton and Grange, 212 inhabitants.

ADGARLEY, a township in the parish of URSWICK, hundred of LONSDALE, north of the sands, county palatine of LANCASTER, 2 miles (S. E. by E.) from Dalton. The population is returned with the parish.

ADISHAM, a parish in the hundred of DOWNHAMFORD, lathe of ST. AUGUSTINE, county of KENT, 24 miles (S. W. by S.) from Wingham, containing 305 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, with the perpetual curacy of Staple annexed, in the peculiar jurisdiction and patronage of the Archbishop of Canterbury, rated in the king's books at £28. 3. 14. The church, dedicated to the Holy Innocents, is a large cruciform

edifice, with a low tower, in the early style of English architecture, except the large window of the transept, which is in the decorated style.

ADLESTROP, a chapelry in the parish of BROADWELL, upper division of the hundred of SLAUGHTER, county of GLOUCESTER, 32 miles (E. by N.) from Stow on the Wold, containing 229 inhabitants. The chapel is dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene.

ADLINGFLEET, a parish in the lower division of the wapentake of OSGOLDCROSS, West riding of the county of YORK, comprising the townships of Adlingfleet, Fockerby, and Haldenby with Eastoft, and containing 431 inhabitants, of which number, 256 are in the township of Adlingfleet, 94 miles (S. E.) from Howden. The living is a vicarage, in the archdeaconry and diocese of York, rated in the king's books at £9. 12. 11., and in the patronage of the Crown. The church is dedicated to All Saints. In 1743, Mary Ramsden bequeathed the sum of £200 for apprenticing boys and educating girls in Fockerby, Norton, Linton, and Adlingfleet.

ADLINGTON, a township in the parish of PRESTBURY, hundred of MACCLESFIELD, county palatine of CHESTER, 5 miles (N. by W.) from Macclesfield, containing 1057 inhabitants. There are some valuable mines of coal and quarries of flag-stone. Adlington Hall, a very ancient structure, which has long been the residence of the family of Legh, was garrisoned for Charles I. in the civil war, and taken by the parliamentarian forces, on the 14th of February, 1645, after a fortnight's siege in the south-east angle is a small domestic chapel, handsomely fitted up, licensed by the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry in the 25th of Henry VI. A manorial court is held twice a year, in May and December, at which debts under 40s. are recoverable.

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ADLINGTON, a township in the parish of STANDISH, hundred of LEYLAND, county palatine of LANCASTER, 4 miles (N.) from Wigan, containing 1043 inhabitants.

ADMARSH, a chapelry in that part of the parish of LANCASTER which is in the hundred of LONSDALE, south of the sands, county palatine of LANCASTER. The population is returned with the parish. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the archdeaconry of Richmond, and diocese of Chester, endowed with £1000 royal bounty, and £200 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Vicar of Lancaster.

ADMINGTON, a hamlet in the parish of QUINTON, upper division of the hundred of KIFTSGATE, county of GLOUCESTER, 64 miles (N. E. by N.) from ChippingCampden, containing 162 inhabitants.

ADMISTON, or ATHELHAMPTON, a parish in the hundred of PIDDLETOWN, Dorchester division of the county of DORSET, 64 miles (E. N. E.) from Dorchester, containing 79 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, with that of Burleston, in the archdeaconry of Dorset, and diocese of Bristol, rated in the king's books at £2, and in the patronage of the Hon. W. T. L. P. Wellesley. This place is traditionally said to have been the principal residence of the Saxon kings of Wessex, but there is no satisfactory evidence of the truth of that opinion. ADSTOCK, a parish in the hundred and county of BUCKINGHAM, 3 miles (N. W.) from Windslow, containing 393 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, in

the archdeaconry of Buckingham, and diocese of Lincoln, rated in the king's books at £13. 16. 3., and in the patronage of the Bishop of Lincoln. The church is dedicated to St. Cecilia. In the time of the plague, in 1665, the contagion having extended to Buckingham and Winslow, a market was held at this place.

ADSTONE, a chapelry in the parish of CANONSASHBY, hundred of GREENS-NORTON, County of NORTHAMPTON, 63 miles (W. N. W.) from Towcester, containing 171 inhabitants. The chapel is dedicated to All Saints. Here is a free school for boys from the age of seven to fourteen.

ADVENT, or ST. ADVEN, a parish in the hundred of LESNEWTH, county of CORNWALL, 12 mile (S.) from Camelford, containing 229 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy, consolidated with the rectory of Lanteglos, in the archdeaconry of Cornwall, and diocese of Exeter. The river Camel separates the two parishes. A copper mine is worked here, but it is not very productive.

ADWALTON, a hamlet in the chapelry of DRIGHLINGTON, parish of BIRSTALL, wapentake of MORLEY, West riding of the county of YORK, 5 miles (S. E. by E.) from Bradford. The population is returned with Drighlington. On Adwalton moor a battle was fought, in 1642, between the royalists under the Earl of Newcastle, and the parliamentarians under Lord Fairfax, in which the latter were defeated. There was formerly a market in this hamlet: fairs are held February 6th, March 9th, Thursday in Easter week, the second Thursday after Easter, Whit-Thursday and every alternate Thursday till Michaelmas, November 5th, and December 23rd, all which, except the two last, are for the sale of lean cattle.

ADWELL, a parish in the hundred of LEWKNOR, county of OXFORD, 12 mile (S. by E.) from Tetsworth, containing 44 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, in the archdeaconry and diocese of Oxford, rated in the king's books at £4. 13. 9., and in the patronage of Mrs. F. Webb. The church is dedicated to St. Mary. Here is an ancient intrenchment, called Adwell Cop, supposed by Dr. Plot to have been constructed by the Danes, about the year 1010.

ADWICK LE STREET, a parish in the northern division of the wapentake of STRAFFORTH and TICKHILL, West riding of the county of YORK, comprising the townships of Adwick le Street and Hamphall with Stubbs, and containing 486 inhabitants, of which number, 346 are in the township of Adwick le Street, 4 miles (N. W. by N.) from Doncaster. The living is a vicarage, in the archdeaconry and diocese of York, rated in the king's books at £4. 13. 4., and in the patronage of J. Fullerton, Esq. The church is dedicated to St. Lawrence. The adjunct to the name of this place is derived from its situation on a Roman road. Here is a free school, with an endowment of £10 per annum, bequeathed by the Rev. William Hedges, a late incumbent, for the education of children. A pure spring in this parish is in great repute for healing sore eyes.

ADWICK UPON DEARNE, a parish in the northern division of the wapentake of STRAFFORTH and TICKHILL, West riding of the county of YORK, 63 miles (N. N. E.) from Rotherham, containing 168 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the archdeaconry and diocese of York, endowed with £400 royal bounty,

and £200 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Dean and Canons of Christ Church, Oxford. The river Dearne, and the Dearne and Dove canal, pass through the parish. Here is a mineral spring.

AFF-PIDDLE, a parish in the hundred of HUNDRED'S BARROW, Blandford (South) division of the county of DORSET, 9 miles (E. by N.) from Dorchester, containing, with the tything of Bryant's-Piddle, 441 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, in the archdeaconry of Dorset, and diocese of Bristol, rated in the king's books at £8. 14. 9., endowed with £200 royal bounty, and in the patronage of J. Frampton, Esq. Here is a free school, endowed with £ 10. 10. per annum. On the summit of a hill, on the road from Piddletown to Poole, there are one hundred and twelve broad and deep pits, the largest of them sixty yards in diameter, which, in the most rainy season, never retain water near them are some small tumuli.

AGDEN, a township in the parish of MALPAS, higher division of the hundred of BROXTON, County palatine of CHESTER, 2 miles (S. E.) from Malpas, containing 122 inhabitants. The Duke of Bridgewater's canal passes through the township.

AĞDEN, a township partly in the parish of RosTHERN, but chiefly in the parish of BOWDON, hundred of BUCKLOW, county palatine of CHESTER, 5 miles (N. N. W.) from Nether Knutsford, containing 77 inhabitants.

AGELTHORPE, a township in the parish of CoVERHAM, Western division of the wapentake of HANG, North riding of the county of YORK, 34 miles (W. S. W.) from Middleham, containing 131 inhabitants.

AGLIONBY, a township in that part of the parish of WARWICK which is in CUMBERLAND ward, county of CUMBERLAND, 32 miles (E.) from Carlisle, containing 91 inhabitants.

AGNES (ST.), a market town and parish in the hundred of PYDER, county of CORNWALL, 8 miles (N. W. by W.) from Truro, and 263 (W.) from London, containing 5762 inhabitants. This place, formerly named Breanick, or Bryanick, is situated in an extensive mining district on the northern coast, and consists principally of cottages, chiefly inhabited by miners: it is partially paved, and well supplied with water; the rocks on the coast are precipitous, and the scenery boldly picturesque. On a pyramidal rocky eminence, six hundred and sixty-four feet above the level of the sea, is St. Agnes' beacon, formed out of an ancient cairn, or tumulus, which, during the late war with France, was kept constantly ready in case of invasion; it has lately been much diminished by the removal of stone for repairing the fences in the vicinity. At the base of the hill are vestiges of a strong vallum, supposed to have been constructed by the Romans, which anciently extended, in a direction nearly circular, for about two miles. This district was formerly explored only for tin: the principal mine, "Sail Hole," having produced an immense quantity, was discontinued a few years since. Copper mines have been subsequently opened with very great success in the principal mine, "Wheal Towan," eight hundred men are employed. After many fruitless attempts to form a harbour, a pier of moor-stone was constructed by a company in 1794, and a considerable trade in coal, lime, and slate, is now carried on with Ireland and Wales.

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The port, which is a member of that of St. Ives, has been enlarged and improved within the last few years, and is capable of affording safe anchorage to eight or ten vessels of one hundred tons' burden, but can only be entered at high water. A pilchard fishery, was established in 1802, which affords employment to about forty men. The market is on Thursday, and a fair is held on April 30th. Courts for the duchy are held here annually in October, at which constables and other officers are appointed. The living is a perpetual curacy, united to the vicarage of Perranzabuloe, in the peculiar jurisdiction of the Dean and Chapter of Exeter. The church, dedicated to St. Agnes, is an ancient structure, built chiefly of granite, with a small spire of the same material. There are places of worship for Independents and Primitive and Wesleyan Methodists. The free school, founded by the Rev. St. John Elliot, in 1760, has a small endowment arising from funds bequeathed by him for charitable uses. In 1688, Mr. Nicholas Kent, of Ningoose, bequeathed a house and garden for aged widows, now used as the parish workhouse. Near the site of an ancient chapel, in a dingle called Chapelcomb, are the remains of St. Agnes' well, of which many miraculous stories are recorded. Opie, the celebrated painter, was born here, in 1761.

AIGHTON, a joint township with Bailey and Chaigley, in that part of the parish of MITTON which is in the lower division of the hundred of BLACKBURN, county palatine of LANCASTER, 5 miles (W. by S.) from Clitheroe, containing, with Bailey and Chaigley, 1487 inhabitants. Here are almshouses, towards the support of which J. Weld, Esq. contributes £92 per annum; also a free school, endowed with £20 per annum.

AIKE, a township partly in the parish of ST. JOHN, borough of BEVERLEY, but chiefly in the parish of LOCKINGTON, Bainton-Beacon division of the wapentake of HARTHILL, East riding of the county of YORK, 7 miles (N. by E.) from Beverley, containing 98 inhabitants.

AIKTON, a parish in the ward and county of CUMBERLAND, comprising the townships of Aikton, Biglands with Gamelsby, Wampool, and Wiggonby, and containing 706 inhabitants, of which number, 249 are in the township of Aikton, 4 miles (N. N. E.) from Wigton. The living is a rectory, in the archdeaconry and diocese of Carlisle, rated in the king's books at £14. 13. 14., and in the patronage of the Earl of Lonsdale. The church is dedicated to St. Andrew.

AILESWORTH, a hamlet in the parish of CASTOR, liberty of PETERBOROUGH, county of NORTHAMPTON, 23 miles (E. by s.) from Wansford, containing 249 inhabitants.

AINDERBY-MYERS, a joint township with Holtby, in the parish of HORNBY, eastern division of the wapentake of HANG, North riding of the county of YORK, 3 miles (s. by E.) from Catterick, containing 79 inhabitants.

AINDERBY-QUERNHOW, a township in that part of the parish of PICKHILL which is in the wapentake of HALLIKELD, North riding of the county of YORK, 5 miles (W. S. W.) from Thirsk, containing 99 inhabitants.

AINDERBY-STEEPLE, a parish in the eastern division of the wapentake of GILLING, North riding of the county of YORK, comprising the townships of Ainderby

Steeple, Morton, Thirntoft, and Warlaby, and containing 768 inhabitants, of which number, 266 are in the township of Ainderby-Steeple, 24 miles (W.S. W.) from North Allerton. The living is a discharged vicarage, in the archdeaconry of Richmond, and diocese of Chester, rated in the king's books at £ 13. 6. 8., and in the patronage of the Crown. The church is dedicated to St. Helen.

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AINSTABLE, a parish in LEATH ward, county of CUMBERLAND, 4 miles (N.N.W.) from Kirk-Oswald, containing, with the hamlet of Rushroft, 518 inhabitThe living is a discharged vicarage, in the archdeaconry and diocese of Carlisle, rated in the king's books at £8. 8. 2., and in the patronage of R. L. Ross, Esq. The church is dedicated to St. Michael. The nave was rebuilt in 1816, and the chancel soon afterwards. This parish, which is bounded on the west by the river Eden, and on the east and south by the Croglin, abounds with most beautiful scenery, particularly in the vale of Croglin, and in the vicinity of Nunnery, a neat residence occupying the site of a Benedictine convent, described in the account of ARMATHWAITE. The scenery around Nunnery has been greatly improved by artificial decorations; numerous cascades, fanciful walks, &c., having been formed on both banks of the river Eden, the waters of which, near the hamlet of Armathwaite, are precipitated over a weir, four yards in height, and seventy in length, and, when the river is swollen, produce an exceedingly loud and murmuring noise. The parish contains a considerable quantity of freestone. Here is a free school, with a small endow ment; and a school has been established by subscription, in which about twenty children are educated. Near the parsonage house is a chalybeate spring. John Leake, M. D., founder of the Westminster Lying-in Hospital, and author of some esteemed medical works, was born here, in 1729.

AINSWORTH, a township in the parish of MIDDLETON, hundred of Salford, county palatine of LANCASTER, 3 miles (E. by N.) from Bolton le Moors, containing 1609 inhabitants.

AINTREE, a township in the parish of SEPHTON, hundred of WEST DERBY, county palatine of LANCASTER, 6 miles (N. N. E.) from Liverpool, containing 260 inhabitants.

AIRTON, a township in that part of the parish of KIRKBY in MALHAM-DALE which is in the western division of the wapentake of STAINCLIFFE and EwCROSS, West riding of the county of YORK, 61⁄2 miles (S. E. by E.) from Settle, containing 187 inhabitants. In this town ship is a twist manufactory: there is also a free school with a small endowment.

AISHOLT, or ASHOLT, a parish in the hundred of CANNINGTON, County of SOMERSET, 7 miles (W. by S.) from Bridg-water, containing, with the hamlet of Lower Aisholt, 176 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, in the archdeaconry of Taunton, and diocese of Bath and Wells, rated in the king's books at £7. 12. 3., and in the patronage of the Rev. John Brice. The church is dedicated to All Saints.

AISHOLT (LOWER), a hamlet in the parish of AISHOLT, hundred of CANNINGTON, county of SOMERSET, 6 miles (W. by S.) from Bridg-water. The population is returned with the parish.

AISKEW, a township in that part of the parish of BEDALE which is in the eastern division of the

wapentake of HANG, North riding of the county of YORK, a mile (N. E.) from Bedale, containing 620 inhabitants. There are two places of worship for Anabaptists, and one for Roman Catholics. A free school has a small endowment for the instruction of children.

AISLABY, a township in the parish of EAGLESCLIFFE, south-western division of STOCKTON ward, county palatine of DURHAM, 1 mile (W. by N.) from Yarm, containing 166 inhabitants. This was, for several generations, the residence of the family of Pemberton, whose mansion has been converted into an inn and several other tenements.

AISLABY, or AYSLEYBY, a chapelry in that part of the parish of WHITBY which is in the eastern division of the liberty of LANGBAURGH, North riding of the county of YORK, 3 miles (S. W. by W.) from Whitby, containing 253 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the archdeaconry of Cleveland, and diocese of York, endowed with £200 private benefaction, and £800 royal bounty, and in the patronage of Mrs. Boulby.

AISLABY, a township in the parish of MIDDLeton, western division of PICKERING lythe, North riding of the county of YORK, 2 miles (W. N. W.) from Pickering, containing 147 inhabitants.

AISMUNDERBY, a joint township with Bondgate, in that part of the parish of RIPON which is in the liberty of RIPON, West riding of the county of YORK, containing, with Bondgate, 551 inhabitants. Here is an hospital for the support of two aged widows.

AISTHORPE, a parish in the wapentake of LawRESS, parts of LINDSEY, county of LINCOLN, 6 miles (N. N. W.) from Lincoln, containing 70 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, with the vicarage of West Thorpe annexed, in the archdeaconry of Stow, and diocese of Lincoln, rated in the king's books at £4. 10., and in the patronage of Mrs. Mangles. The church is dedicated to St. Peter.

AKEBAR, a township in the parish of FINGALL, western division of the wapentake of HANG, North riding of the county of YORK, 5 miles (N. E. by E.) from Middleham, containing 43 inhabitants.

AKELD, a township in the parish of KIRK-NEWTON, western division of GLENDALE ward, county of NORTHUMBERLAND, 2 miles (N. W. by W.) from Wooler, containing 167 inhabitants. Vestiges of a burial-place are discernible here, but there are no traces of any place of worship.

AKELY, a parish in the hundred and county of BUCKINGHAM, 2 miles (N. by E.) from Buckingham, containing 295 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, in the archdeaconry of Buckingham, and diocese of Lincoln, rated in the king's books at £6. 2. 4., and in the patronage of the Warden and Fellows of New College, Oxford. The church is dedicated to St. James the Apostle. There was formerly a chapel of ease at Stockholt, in this parish.

AKENHAM, a parish in the hundred of BoSMERE and CLAYDON, county of SUFFOLK, 4 miles (N. by W.) from Ipswich, containing 120 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, with that of Claydon united, in the archdeaconry of Suffolk, and diocese of Norwich, rated in the king's books at £9. 11. 5., and in the patronage of the Rev. George Drury.

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ALBANS (ST.), a borough and market town, having separate jurisdiction, locally in the hundred of Cashio, or liberty of St. Albans, county of HERTFORD, 12 miles (W. by s.) from Hertford, and 20 (N. W. by N.) from London, containing 4472 inhabitants. This place, separated from the site of the Roman Verulamium by the small river Ver, derived its name and origin from the magnificent monastery founded here by Offa, King of Mercia, in commemoration of St. Albanus, the proto-martyr of Britain. Verulam, according to the Roman historians, was founded by the Britons, at an earlier period than London. It was the chief station of Cassivellaunus at the time of the invasion of Cæsar, who describes it as a place of great military strength, well defended by woods and marshes. It appears to have consisted of rude dwellings constructed of wood, and to have been surrounded by a rampart and fosse. In the reign of Nero, it was accounted a municipium, or free city; and in that of Claudius, it was surprised by Boadicea, Queen of the Iceni, who slaughtered the chief part of the Roman and British inhabitants. After its subsequent restoration, it continued to be a primary station of the Romans until their final departure from Britain. During their occupation of it, Albanus, an eminent citizen, converted to Christianity by Amphibalus, in 293, boldly refusing to abjure his new religion, was beheaded on the hill called Holmhurst, on which spot the monastery was subsequently erected, and continued to flourish under a succession of forty abbots. About the middle of the fifth century, Verulam was occupied by the Saxons, and received the name of Watlingceaster, from the Roman highway, called Watling-street, on which it stood. According to Matthew Paris, the present town owes its origin to Ulsinus, or Ulsig, the sixth abbot, who, about the year 950, built a church on each of the three principal roads leading from the monastery, dedicated respectively to St. Stephen, St. Michael, and St. Peter, and encouraged the neighbouring inhabitants to erect houses, by supplying them with money and materials. Fritheric, or Frederic, the thirteenth abbot, opposed the march of the Norman conqueror, by causing the trees on the roadside, near Berkhampstead, to be cut down and laid across the way; he was also principally instrumental in exacting from him an oath to observe the ancient laws of the realm. William subsequently deprived this church of a great portion of its lands, and would have destroyed the monastery, but for the interposition of Archbishop Lanfranc. The monks and the inhabitants had frequent quarrels: and, in the reign of Richard II., the insurgents in Wat Tyler's rebellion were aided by the latter in besieging the monastery. On their dispersion, the king repaired hither, attended by Judge Tresilian and one thousand soldiers, to try the delinquents, and many of the townsmen were executed. The king remained eight days, on one of which the commons of the county assembled by his command, and, in the great court of the abbey, swore to be thenceforward faithful subjects. A sanguinary battle was fought here

on the 22nd of May, 1455, between Henry VI. and the Duke of York, in which the Lancastrians were defeated, their leader, the Duke of Somerset, killed, and the king himself made prisoner. On the 17th of February, 1461, another engagement took place on Bernard heath, north of the town, when Queen Margaret compelled the Earl of Warwick to retreat with considerable loss; after this action, the town was plundered and much damaged. On the introduction of printing into England, about 1471, a press was put up in the abbey, from which issued some of those early specimens which are now so eagerly sought for by collectors; the first translation of the Bible was made here. During the civil war between Charles I. and the parliament, a party of soldiers, under the Earl of Essex, garrisoned the town, and destroyed the beautiful cross, which was one of those erected by Edward I. in memory of his queen.

The town is situated chiefly on the summit and northern declivity of a considerable eminence, and consists principally of three streets, the abbey church standing on the hill near the point where they meet. That part of it which forms the old line of the great north road is narrow, and contains many ancient houses; but the other parts are spacious and well built. It is well paved and lighted under a local act, and, from the salubrity of the air, its short distance from the metropolis, and the excellence of its municipal regulations, is a desirable place of residence. By a recent diversion of the main road, extending for two miles, about three hundred yards southward from the town, the former circuitous and dangerous route through it is avoided : on this new line of road some handsome villas, and one of the most commodious inns in the county, called the Verulam Arms, have been lately erected. The manufacture of straw plat, in which about eight hundred persons are employed, is the chief occupation of the lower class of inhabitants. A silk-mill, occupying the site of the abbey mill, affords employment to three hundred young persons of both sexes; and in a mill for spinning cotton wicks for candles, formerly applied to the cutting and polishing of diamonds, about sixty persons are engaged. The market is on Saturday, for corn, straw-plat, and provisions: there is a fair on March 25th and 26th, for cattle and horses; and a statute fair is held on Oct. 11th, and the two following days.

St. Albans is styled a borough in the record of Domesday, and is stated to have contained forty-six burgesses, who were the demesne men of the abbot, and under his jurisdiction (with the exception of a brief interval in the reigns of Edward II. and III.), until the dissolution, when the possessions of the monastery were surrendered to the crown. The inhabitants were incorporated in the 7th of Edward VI., by whose charter, modified in subsequent reigns, and confirmed in that of Charles II., the government is vested in a mayor, high steward, recorder, twelve aldermen, and twenty-four assistants, with a town clerk, who generally acts as chamberlain and coroner, two serjeants at mace, and subordinate officers. The mayor is chosen from among the aldermen, annually on the 21st of September; the high steward, recorder, and town-clerk, are appointed by the mayor and aldermen, subject to approval by the crown; the aldermen are elected by a majority of their own body, as vacancies occur; and the assistants are chosen by the mayor and aldermen. The

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