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not bring about the displacement, but merely the assimilation of one people by another. This conclusion

[graphic][merged small][merged small]

is confirmed by many like discoveries in Britain and the Continent, which show that the Neolithic race was amply represented in the areas occupied by the invading tribes in the Bronze Age.



These Broad-heads,' so far as I know, did not find their way into Britain until they were armed with the weapons of the Bronze Age. They belong to the earlier section of the Celtic people, clearly defined by Rhys as the Goidels or Q-Celts, and formed part of the Alpine race of Ripley. They were more powerfully built than the aborigines, with fair complexions, grey eyes, and light or brown hair, and they are amply represented in the present Welsh people. They are merely a section of the Aryan-speaking tribes who invaded Britain after absorbing more or less the nonAryan population of the Continent into their mass, and impressing upon them their tongue and civilisation. We probably owe to them the introduction of the Bronze Age culture, although it is likely that bronze articles, easily carried, found their way into Britain before the actual conquest took place. To the Celtic section of these invading tribes we owe the introduction of the Goidelic tongue, Gaelic, Irish, and Manx, and the many Goidelic words shown by Rhys, Basil Jones, and others, to be present in the Welsh language.

The Goidels are therefore the second element in Welsh Ethnology and, mingled in varying proportions with the Iberic aborigines, formed the population not only of Wales, but of the whole of the British Isles, in the Bronze Age. They are one of the tribes in the van of the Aryan migration, from the side of Asia into Europe, to which we owe our language and a very large part of our civilisation.

1 For the definition of the Broad-heads see Thurnam, Mem., Anthrop. Soc. Lond., i, p. 120; Dawkins, Cave-Hunting, c. v, vi; and Early Man in Britain, c. ix.

2 Rhind Lectures, Early Ethnology of the British Isles, 1891, pp. 1-20.

3 The Races of Europe, 1900, p. 121.


We must now consider the distribution of the population in Britain. The camps, enclosures, habitations, and burial places, are numerous on the dry uplands, and are, as a rule, rare in the lower districts, then densely covered with forests and marshes. On the downs of Southern England, on the hills of Derbyshire, and the wolds and moors of Yorkshire, they stand in so close a relation to the ridgeways that there is no room for doubt that the latter are as old as the Bronze Age. In Wales, as may be seen in the one-inch Ordnance maps, the same evidence is presented. They cluster round the ridgeways and the transverse ways, linking one valley with another and marking the date of the first clearly-defined roads. Here, too, the main population was in the uplands and mountain valleys. The lowlands, such as the lower portion of the Dee, the Clwyd, and Conway, and the higher moors, such as those of Snowdonia, offered physical difficulties that were not overcome till a later time. Anglesey was probably as densely populated in the Bronze Age as at any time down to that of coaches and railways. It is, we may note, on the line of communication then opened with Ireland, along which Irish gold ornaments passed into Wales, and that in later times is familiar as the route of the Irish Mails by way of

to us



In Wales, as elsewhere, the use of iron gradually replaced that of bronze, as may be seen by the ironsocketed celt, of the usual Bronze Age type,' found in the Berwyn Hills, Merioneth. The civilisation that

1 Arch. Camb., 1855, p. 250.

came along with it has been dealt with so fully by Franks, Greenwell, Arthur Evans, Reginald Smith,1 and others, that I shall only mention a few of the points which more closely concern Wales. It was derived from the Continent, and is characterised by the appearance of the beautiful "Late Celtic Art," and by the traces of a gradually increasing intercourse with the Mediterranean peoples Greek, Etruscan, and Roman. In this latter connection we may note the pink Mediterranean coral used in the decoration of shields and brooches, the Italo-Greek vessels of bronze and silver, and the use of coins, the earlier being copies of those of Greece and the later of those of Rome. It was, on the whole, uniform in character throughout Britain, although it was in closer touch with the Continent, in the southern and eastern countries. This fact is emphasised by the irregular distribution of the coins, that were at this time not used in commerce much further north than Yorkshire, although there are two finds of isolated specimens on record in Scotland near Dumfries, and at Lesmahagow, or further west than the Welsh Marches, the only two finds in Wales being at Dinas, in Breconshire, and Penbryn, in Cardiganshire.

With this exception, the civilisation of Wales in the Pre-historic Iron Age was the same as in the rest of Britain, standing to it in the same relation as at the present day. It is without any sign of the woadpainted barbarians, fondly imagined in the older histories to have inhabited the remoter parts of our island at the time of the Roman invasion.

The fortified villages and towns (oppida) were the

1 Franks, Kemble's Hora Ferales, 4to. Greenwell, "Early Iron Age Burials in Yorkshire," Archæologia, vol. 1x, 251. British Barrows. Arthur Evans, "Late Celtic Urn Field," Archæologia, lii, 315. Reginald A. Smith, British Museum Guide. Antiquities of the Early Iron Age, 8vo, 1905.

John Evans, Ancient British Coins, 8vo, 1864. Supplement, 1890.

same in Wales as in other parts of our island, and contain the same remains. In Tre Ceiri, Carnarvonshire,' for example, the stone ramparts and the general scheme of defence are of the same order as in the great fortress of Worlebury? dominating Weston-super-Mare, and many others in Somerset and elsewhere. The iron implements and weapons found, the hammer (Fig, 21) and the bill hook (Fig. 22), the socketed lance head, the bone weaving comb, the beads


Fig. 21.-Iron Hammer, Tre Ceiri (Arch. Camb., 1904)

of vitreous paste, and the pottery, find their counterparts in the Lake Village of Glastonbury, Somerset, and in the oppidum of Mount Caburn near Lewes, as well as Hunsbury near Northampton. The fortresses on St. David's Head and Moel Trigarns on the divide

1 Baring Gould and Burnard, Arch. Camb., 1904, and Harold Hughes and Dawkins, Arch. Camb., 1907.

2 Dymond, Worlebury, An Ancient Stronghold in Somerset, 4to, 1902.

3 Baring Gould, Burnard, and Enys, Arch. Camb., 1899, p. 105; Baring Gould, Burnard, and Anderson, Arch. Camb., 1900, p. 180.

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