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centre of one a flat stone"; this last seems to have disappeared, and, in fact, in his time, these circles appear to have been far more numerous.

About half-a-mile to the west, in a field not far from a tumulus with an outer circle of stones, is a small circle of eight fairly large stones, with an opening on the eastern side.

Near the track, alongside a wall leading from

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Llyn y Wrach to Tyddyn Grasod, about 600 yards due west of a small farm-house called Hafotty, and about 1200 yards to the N.N.E. of Maen Namor, is a fairly good example of a stone circle (Fig. 10). Its diameter is about 40 feet, and six stones are still standing; the largest stone is 2 feet 6 inches high, 3 feet broad on the side facing west, and 2 feet thick at the base. It tapers to a thin edge at the top,

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which is 1 foot broad. Unfortunately, one of the largest stones has been blasted.

Not far from the Pass of the Two Stones, the Roman Road to Caerhun passes between walls. A few hundred yards from this point may be seen, over the wall on the right, what appear to be either two adjacent stone circles, or a series of stones enclosing an oval space.


Fig. 11.-Maen Hir, near Maen y Bardd
(Photograph by B. M. Cushing)

It remains only to say a few words about the monoliths or maen hirs. These seem to be chiefly confined to the neighbourhood of the Roman Road from the River Conway to Aber. From their general position it is quite possible that, in early times, some of them may have been landmarks over a somewhat difficult country, before the Romans made their celebrated road from Conovium to Aber. One of these stones is said to have been at the bottom of the slope below Llanbedr, but it has unfortunately been broken

up. Near Bath Farm, Llanbedr, is another-a huge stone of rectangular shape. Further on, near Cromlech Maen y Bardd, is a long needle-shaped stone (Fig. 11) sloping a little to the east; it is 7 feet 3 inches high by 1 foot 2 inches by 1 foot 3 inches; its Welsh name. is Ffon y Cawr (the Giant's Walking-stick). Professor Angelo Mosso, in The Dawn of Mediterranean Civilisation (London, 1910), says: "It is now demonstrated


Fig. 12.-Tumulus and Two Stones (Bwlch y Ddeufaen) (Photograph by B. M. Cushing)

that pillar worship dates back to the Neolithic Age. . I believe that standing stones' belong to the baetylic cult." Further on, to the right of the road is another monolith, not far from the farm "Cae Coch." The stone is oval in section, the longer diameter being 6 feet, the shorter 11 feet, and the height about 7 feet. Proceeding to the top of the Pass, the famous "Bwlch y Ddeufaen" (Fig. 12) comes in view.


quite recently only one of these stones was standing; but, within recent years, the second was placed upright. The larger stone is 11 feet high, 5 feet wide in the middle, and 4 feet thick; it tapers to the top (which is rounded) to 2 feet. The smaller stone, which is nearer the " Bwlch," has a flat surface on the E. and W. faces, and is 7 feet high, 4 feet wide, and 1 ft. thick.

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The tumulus near Bwlch y Ddeufaen has been called "Barclodiad y Gawres," or "the Giantess' Apronful." Among other stones in the district may be mentioned:

1. A group of huge stones, one 20 feet long, on the summit of a ridge called "Cefn Maen Namor," possibly Cefn Maen Mawr (or Big Stone Ridge), extending from Waen Gyrach Farm, not far from the Green Gorge, to

the western end of Tal y fan. It seems most probable that these stones were deposited by ice in their present position, abundant evidence of glacial action being found in the neighbourhood.

2. Maen Hir monolith (Fig. 13), is situated in the middle of a field, about 600 yards to the W.S.W. of Hafotty (Gyffin Parish), the same distance to the E.N.E. of Tyddyn Grasod, and 1300 yards to the N.N.W. of Llangelynin old Church.

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3. Maen y Campiau (Stone of the Games). This remarkable stone (Fig. 14), which is marked on the Ordnance Map as Maen Penddu, is situated to the N.E. of Tal y fan, close to the slate quarry, and about mile to the N. W. of Caer Bach.

It is 6 feet 6 inches high, on its S.W. face is 4 feet 5 inches broad, and on its N. E. face 5 feet 10 inches broad; its girth is 12 feet 8 inches. It stands on

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