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ments of the red Samian ware. Among the black ware is a piece of a somewhat scarce type of beaker or cup, with handle attached. Besides the pottery, small objects owned by former dwellers in the stronghold have been turned up, including a few bronze coins, ranging from the second to the fourth century. One of these is a Constantine the Great, of the Urbs Roma type, with the representation of Romulus and Remus being suckled by the wolf on the reverse. It bears the mint mark of Lugdunum. It was struck between the years A.D. 335 and 337. It is in fine, fresh condition, showing that it cannot have been long in circulation when it was dropped by its former owner upon the hill-top of Parc y Meirch.

ROMAN MILESTONES. In a letter to Arch. Camb., 1883, Mr. Richard Luck, of Llanfairfechan, writing 2nd March, 1883, reports that "about ten days ago, a remarkably fine stone has been found in a field adjoining a branch road which runs into the 'Old Roman Road' [leading from Aber through a pass in the mountain range between Llanfairfechan and Aber, called 'Bwlch y ddaufaen'] at a distance of about two miles from Aber. . . The field was being cleared by the owner of boulder and other stones, when the labourers came in contact with the fine Roman milestone. Fortunately for its preservation, it was entirely buried in the earth, with the exception of a small bos at the base of the stone, which stood above the surface of the land. . . . The form is cylindrical and slightly tapering. Its entire length is 6 ft. 9 in.; diameter near the base, 191 in., at the summit, which is not entirely circular, 17 in. and 16 in.; the circumference at or near the base is 5 ft., and 7 in. The whole of the inscription is within 16 in. of the top; and it would appear that the base for 16 in. had been originally sunk in the ground.

at the top, 4 ft.

"The stone is conglomerate, or millstone grit, as are also the two stones in Bwlch y ddaufaen.' That kind of stone is not, I think, to be found in this neighbourhood."

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The stone referred to is that known as Hadrian's Milestone," now set up in the British Museum, and figured in Arch. Camb., 1912, p. 225, where the place of finding is incorrectly put as Rhiwan, instead of Rhiwiau.

In Arch. Camb., 1884, p. 244, is a letter from R. W. B., referring to a statement by Mr. Thompson Watkin of the discovery of "a second milestone, of which the upper portion was found in July following, about 10 yards from the site of the first one. Like the other, this milestone is of grit stone, and of the same diameter; but the portion found is only 1 ft. 11 in. in height." This is the stone. inscribed with the names of Septimius Severus and M. Aurelius Antoninus.


FIND OF BARROWS NEAR LLANFIHANGEL NANT MELAN.--Hearing of a find of barrows near Llanfihangel-Nant-Melan I at once proceeded there, and took a brief survey of the ground, which I fancy is one of the most important burying grounds in Radnorshire. It is situated on the south side of a hill called Gilwern, which lies to the north of Caety Traylow. It is due west of Pentre Tump and

east of Black Yat.

It is surrounded on the north-west and east by a vallum and fosse. This vallum, at present 4 ft. high, is faced on the fosse side with stone, and is backed with earth, 8 ft. broad, enclosing a rectangular piece of ground about half-a-mile long. To the south is a very steep dingle (Cwm y Bont). The entrance is on the west side by a deep hollow-way, 10 ft. broad, leading in a south-westerly direction. About two miles west is a stone circle. An old trackway on the west side outside the vallum runs to Gladestry. To the north-west is a large pool of water.

The spot is specially interesting on account of the long graves, which are exactly similar to, but, owing to the nature of the soil, not in so good preservation as the so-called Giants' Graves discovered at Builth. Such structures are more common in Radnorshire than is generally supposed.

These graves are dotted about the hill. I counted thirty-six on the average, from 42 ft. to 72 ft. long, and though the majority run north and south, a few run east and west. 14 ft. broad, and in most cases it seems as if chamber which had given way.

They are all about there was a central

Down the centre to half-way down the hill runs a broad track, 10 yards wide, on each side of which is a small vallum. This stops at the outer vallum, and from this point a very large barrow on Wimble can be seen exactly north-east. Where this ends is a large excavation in the hill running north and south.

The hill side has been cut away and earth thrown out to form two large platforms. Similar structures of smaller dimensions occur both to the east and west.

Another curious building is met with in an excavation on the extreme west near the gate, possibly the remains of the hut of the guardian or chief priest, though it is exactly east and west, and might be a tomb. Round this are some high mounds of earth differing from the other barrows, and some dry walling, 2 ft. high and 2 ft. broad. The inside measurement is 32 ft. long by 9 ft. broad. The wall round the cemetery or burial ground is now used as a boundary, but it is of extremely ancient date and does not look like an ordinary fence.

There are no camps in the immediate vicinity, and the early builders may have either come from the camps round Builth or, as has been suggested, dwelt in crannogs in the valleys.



BRONZE CELT, CRICKHOWEL. In the volume of the Cambrian Archeologia for 1905, page 260, "Notes and Queries," is a question about a bronze celt found at Crickhowel, and now in the Rugby School Museum. I can, I think, clear up how it got there. It was given me by my grandfather, the late Joseph Joseph, F.S.A., of Brecon, who was for some time your Treasurer, and I gave it some twenty-five years ago to the Rugby School Museum.


Castell Gorfod, St. Clears.

THE ANNUAL MEETING will be held at Cardiff July 22nd to 27th, under the Presidency of the Earl of Plymouth. The following is the Programme of Arrangements :--

Monday, 22nd July.-Meeting of the Committee of the Association, at 6 P.M., in the Committee Room of the Y.M.C.A. (opposite T. V.R. Station), to receive the Annual Report and for other business. Reception in the City Hall, at 8.30 P.M. Tuesday, 23rd July.-Camp, Witla Court; St. Mellon's Church; Druidston (Standing Stone); Caerleon; Y Gaer (Tredegar Park); Churches of Wentloog (St. Bride's, Peterston, Marshfield); Wentloog Castle; Castleton; Cefn Mabli.

8.15 P.M., Evening Meeting-President's Address.

Wednesday, 24th July.-By G. W. R. to Bridgend, thence by motor to Ewenny Priory; St. Donat's Castle; Llantwit Major; Llancarfan (Camp, Church, Holy Well, etc.); Dyffryn (Camp, Cromlechs); St. Lythan's.

Thursday, 25th July. Caerau super Ely (Camp); Llandough Church; Llandaff Cathedral; St. Fagan's (Castle, Church); Capel Llanilltern (Inscribed Stone); Caerau (Llantrisant); Castellau; Llantwit Fardre; Caerarfa, near Creigiau (Cromlech).

8.15 P.M., General Meeting of Members of the C. A. Asso-

Friday, 26th July.-By train to Caerphilly (Castle and outpost);
By motor to Van and via Nantgarw to Castell Coch; Tynant;
Greenmeadow; Rhubina Mound; Cardiff Castle; Black
Friars; Grey Friars; St. John's Church; Museum, etc.
8.15 P.M., Evening Meeting.

Saturday, 27th July.-(By invitation of the Rhondda Naturalists'
Society.) By train to the Rhondda Valley; Blaen Rhondda
Hut-Circles (recently excavated); Museum; Maindy Camp;
Penrhys Abbey (to be excavated); Porth.

WE regret to record the death, at the advanced age of 84, of Mr. H. Clarence Whaite, the President of the Royal Cambrian Academy, who so courteously received the members, on our visit in August last, at Plas Mawr, Conway. He was the founder and first president of the Royal Cambrian Academy, the doyen of the Manchester Academy of Fine Art, and one of the best-known figures in northern artistic circles. He was a regular exhibitor at the Manchester Royal Institution. Of one of his pictures Ruskin was pleased to remark, "Very good in almost every respect, and take it all in all perhaps the most covetable picture of the year." David Cox went specially to see Mr. Whaite, and complimented him warmly: Well, Mr. Waite, yours are the finest pictures I have seen in the Principality." Two of his pictures are in the Cardiff Museum.


THE name of the writer of the article in the April number, on "Prehistoric Remains, Llanbedr, Merionethshire," was unfortunately omitted. The author is Mr. Leonard Dudley Buxton.


BEACON TOWERS IN WALES.-In some notes on an oak chest from St. Sannan's Church, Bedwellty, Monmouthshire, read before the Society of Antiquaries by Mr. Edward P. Warren, F.S.A., reference was made to the use of the Tower of the Church in a system of beacon lights. "The Church occupies a fine high-perched and conspicuous site, about 1000 ft. above the sea, on the range of hills which form the south side of the valley of the Sirhowy river in Monmouthshire. The tower is the finest feature of the church, of the fourteenth century with fifteenth or sixteenth century alterations and additions. The termination of the stair turret, which is oblong in plan and attached to the north-east angle of the tower, is interesting. It consists of a small stone-floored enclosure, roughly 4 ft. by 3 ft., walled in by the battlemented parapets on the three outer north, east, and west sides, and with an opening towards the tower roof on the south side. Its use is obvious as a beacon-turret, the opening serving for the stoking of the fire, which must have been of faggots instead of the commonly-used pitch-pot.

The position of this tower would give it prominence, and its beacon-fire one of a chain to guard the English border-line beyond Severn-would be conspicuous for miles, and would transmit a signal to the next hill ridge northward, or even to the Brecknock Beacon, which, in clear weather, is well in view.

The immediately neighbouring Church of Mynydd Yslwyn is also high-perched and conspicuous on a hill four or five miles to the southward and nearer the Bristol Channel; it has a beacon-turret similar to that at Bedwellty, and again attached to the north-east angle of the tower.

Gellygaer has none, and my hurried visits to the neighbourhood have, so far, not enabled me to discover others. Though I have heard of similar turret tops in Herefordshire and elsewhere, the information has not been of so definite and reliable a character as to embolden me to lay it before this Society.

It would be extremely interesting to follow up and substantiate not only the chain of beacons along the Anglo-Welsh border, of which Bedwellty and Mynydd Yslwyn form links, but to investigate the existence and relative disposition of beacons where they occur in this and other countries.

Instances of beacon-turrets are, I believe, not uncommon, but an iron cresset fixed to the tower-parapet seems to have been in more general use in the South and West of England, rings, sockets, and other marks of their attachment being not infrequent. I think the fact that the short conical terminals or spirelets of so many

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