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cut on one of its faces with a faded volute consisting of six or seven spiral concentric lines, the diameter of the outermost being about 11 in. But this carved stone, instead of being a part (as supposed) of a set of standing stones belonging to the spot where it now stands, was removed several years ago down to its present site from one of the ancient fortified enclosures, camps, or towns, which abound on the neighbouring high grounds."

The stone was examined by the Members at our Portmadoc meeting in 1903. Mr. Romilly Allen, in his report on this meeting, remarks that it "in all probability belongs to the Bronze Age, and is a unique specimen as far as Wales is concerned. The stone is four-sided and tapers towards the top. It is 2 ft. 9 in. high by 11 in. wide at the top and 1 ft. 11 in. wide at the bottom by 1 ft. 2 in. thick. At the top there is a single spiral, neatly incised."

It is not, however, an "isolated" or "unique example in Wales." At the Llandrindod meeting, 1910, the Members were able to examine another specimen, carefully preserved from weather and accident, with two other incised stones, in the wall of the porch of Llanafan Fawr Church.

A careful inspection with a magnifying glass will show the method employed.

"The spirals on the stones at New Grange and elsewhere in Ireland (Mr. Coffey points out) are not cut as with a graver, side-driven as a plough: They are punched by a number of blows struck perpendicularly on the surface of the stone. Any hard-pointed instrument, a pointed stone, will do to punch a line in the fairly soft surfaces of the stones usually selected. By repeated blows with a pointed instrument a more or less continuous line of punched marks can be easily made to follow a required form. When they are sunk, the tool may be run in the line to clear it."

1 Arch. Camb., 1904, p. 149.


Stone in Church Porch, Llanatan Fawr, with Spiral Ornament

At Gavr Inis, in Brittany, amongst the numerous incised stones in the passage and chambers of the tumulus, two are inscribed with spirals; one bears a single spiral, the other has on it two rude examples of the double spiral. In a subterranean chamber at La Tourelle, near Quimper, Brittany, were found fragments of a terra-cotta statue, with a varied ornamentation of concentric circles, isolated or grouped in quincunx, and separated by dotted lines.1

The spirals of the Egyptian scarabs have been con

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sidered to have a sacred or magical meaning. It is quite possible that the markings on stones may have had some religious significance.

Sir J. N. Simpson was inclined to believe "that they were emblems or symbols connected in some way with the religious thoughts and doctrines of those that carved them." This he concludes from the position and circumstances in which they are found. several instances they are engraved on the outer or inner surface of the stone lids of the ancient kist vaen


and mortuary urn. The remains of the dead which

1 Arch. Camb., 1868, p. 309.

occupied these cists and urns were covered over with stones carved with these rude concentric circles,

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apparently just as afterwards-in early Christian times -they were covered with cut emblems of the cross placed in the same position. Man has ever conjoined

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