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Celt found August 14, 1911, in the Gop Cave. $full size


THE IMPLEMENT-BEARING GRAVEL BEDS OF THE VALLEY OF THE Lower Test. --(Abstract of a Paper by W. Dale, Esq., F.S.A., read before the Society of Antiquaries, February 22, 1912).Mr. Dale describes the gravel pits which occur near Ramsey and Dunbridge, and shows a large quantity of Palæolithic implements from the same.

These implements are diverse in form and in the condition of their patination. The gravei is usually whitish in colour at the top, which is attributed to the action of the weather dissolving out the iron and depositing it lower down. Implements from this horizou are whitish in colour, while those at a lower depth are yellowish or brown, according to the colour of the gravel. At the base the implements usually have a double patination, caused by ferruginous matter being deposited more on one side than the other. Implements of various forms occur at all depths. At the Kimbridge pit there is a preponderance of the rough ovate implements to which the name of “Chelles” has been given, while at the Dunbridge pit there are found remarkably fine pointed implements, not water worn and with a white patina. Photographs of the sections are shown, and at Dunbridge, where the gravel rests on Bagshot sands and clays, it is suggested that the gravel may have been deposited under sub-glacial conditions. The condition of some of the implements seems to prove they were made on the spot, while others must have travelled far:

PREHISTORIC Max.---STORY OF THE IPSWICH SKELETON.---Professor Arthur Keith, Conservator of the Royal College of Surgeons Museum, in the first of his Hunterian lectures on the evolution of inan, dealt chiefly with the antiquity of modern man. He stated that the remains of a human skeleton had recently been discovered beneath a stratum of undisturbed chalky boulder clay in a sandpit at Ipswich. The person to whom the skeleton belonged had clearly lived before the overlying strata were formed. Comparing the Ipswich skeleton with other ancient human remains which have been found in England, Professor Keith stated that the only one which could be compared in point of age was the Galley Hill man, whose remains were found in the 100-ft. terrace of the Thames Valley -the terrace being part of an ancient bed of the river. It has been pointed out that the 100-ft. terrace rests on the boulder clay ; therefore the boulder-clay formation is older than the 100-ft. terrace, and that consequently the Ipswich skeleton belongs to a much earlier date than the Galley Hill man, who belonged to a

very high Hint civilisation. The fint instruments which have been found in the boulder clay (the ice sheet caught them up from the land surface on which it formed) and in the mid-glacial sands, which lie beneath the boulder clay, and in which the Ipswich skeleton was partly embedded, are of a more primitive type.

Professor Keith is of opinion that there can be no doubt that the skeleton is that of a man. His height is estimated at 5 ft. 10 in. In teeth, in skull-forn, and in the leading features of the skeleton, the Ipswich man does not differ in build of body from the men of to-day.

The lecturer expressed the opinion that perhaps too much attention had been directed to the skull. It was very probable that the tibia, being so closely associated with the human manner of walking, would serve to distinguish various stages in man's evolution. The shin of the Ipswich tibia was unlike any form yet seen. In place of a sharp shin there was a flat surface. The significance of this feature was not known; it certainly did not represent a pathological condition, but was evidently due to a peculiarity in the gait of the individual. It was likely to prove a sure character of the Ipswich race, and represent a stage in evolution. - From the Standard.

DE LACY's LORDSHIP IN DENBIGHSHIRE. --The following transcript is communicated by the Rev. G. C. Chambres. He states that it is probably one of many similar charters issued to the original settlers, but that the only other one with which he is acquainted belongs to the Heaton family of Plas Heaton, Denbighshire. The parchment is about 9} in. by 87 in., and still retains some of the brittle greyishyellow wax of the original seal, though all traces of the impression have vanished. It has been marked, possibly by some visiting herald, with two small ermine spots. The present owner is Mr. H. C. Chambres, of Eastham.

“A Toutz ceux qui ceste escrit verront ou orront. Henry de Lacy, Counte de Nicole et Conestable de Cestre, Seygnur de Roos et de Reweyknol(?) salutz en deu. Sachiez nous auer done et graunte et par ceste nostre presente chartre conferme a Johan de la Chambre nostre Chaumberlein pour soun homage et pour son seruice deus charues de terre ou les apurtenaunces en Lewenny qi contient vt foitz vint acres par la perche de vint peez. A auer et tenir a lauantdit Johan et ses heirs de son cors lealment engendrez fraunchment quitement et poisiblement et oue toute manere aysement. Cest a sauer housbote et Haybote en le boys de Lewenny par viue de nos foresters Cest a sauer del boys de Garthsnodyok de qes a la torre Madok Abaignon et comune de pasture a toute manere de bestes parmy tut lan en le boys auaundit de deuz les deuises auauntdiz apurtenant a taunt de tenement en mesme la ville et quite de pannage a tous ses pors de sa propre mirine de nous et de nous heirs par seruice de Chivalrie dont les ditz charues de terre font le fee de Chivaler et fesaunt a nous et nos heirs la suite a nostre Court de Dunbegh de trois semeins en trois semeins. E la garde de nostre Chastel de Dunbgh en tens de guere. Cest a sauer chesqun au tant com guere serra vt jours a deux chiuaus . . vertz ou sesse jours a vn chiual couertz le quel qe nous ou nos heirs meutz vodrons tut a lour coustages E rendunt a nous et a nos heirs vn maile par an pour chesquen bouee a la seint michel pour la garde de nostre chastel auant dit en tens de pees. E nous et nos heirs a lauantdit Johan et ses heirs de son cors lealment engendrez lauaụntdit tenement pour les seruices auauntdit garantons et quiterons et def[enderons au]xi pleinement come nostre Seygnur le Roy et ses heirs nos tenemenz en celes parties a nous et nos heirs garauntissent aquitent et defendent Esi lauauntdit Johan mureusse(?) saunz heir de son cors lealment engendrez tut lauauntdit tenement oue tutes les apourtenaunces sauns counteredit de nul homme a

nos heirs enterement reuertera. En temoinance de quels choses nous auons mis nostre seal a cest presente Chartre. A ces temoines. Sire Robert le fiz Roger. Sire Roger de Trumpington. Sire William le Vauasour. Sire William de Stoppham. Chiualers, Kenew rek Abllawar [?] Bledyn Vaghan. Madok Gogh et autres."


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The following is the Report for the year 1911 of the Pembrokeshire Association for the Preservation of Ancient Monuments :

Lawhaden Castle. - A good deal of the ivy has been destroyed by lighting fires around the roots during the dry weather, and it is hoped to do more during the coming year. The north wall along the edge of the moat, which is considerably undermined, is being underpinned in the worst places, and a dungeon under one of the towers has been cleared out. Such young trees as remain in the walls should again be cut, and fallen trees inside the Castle and moat should be cleared away. It is hoped that the Association Committee will soon be able to publish a ground plan of this Castle.

Castell Coch.-Your Committee obtained an estimate for the work required to be done to this building, and decided to do the most urgent part of it-viz., rebuilding the jamb of the doorway of the north side and securing the cracked window arch on the south side. A good deal more remains to be done, and it is hoped that funds may be forthcoming to complete the work during the summer months.

Carew Castle.--Nothing further has been done by the owner towards these repairs.

Trehowell Ogam.- This stone has been removed to Glandwr graveyard.

St. Mary's, Haverfordwest. - A scheme is on foot for restoring the west window of this Church in memory of the late Vicar, which it is hoped will meet with success. The north gateway, which formed part of the destroyed thirteenth-century charnel chapel, has been restored at the expense of the Association, under the direction of Mr. W. D. Caroe; caen stone was used as far as possible, fragments of which were found in the churchyard and in the surrounding walls. The work was afterwards sprayed with a hardening solution to prevent the stone decaying. Handsome iron gates have been presented by Dr. Henry Owen.

Roch Castle. -Considerable further repairs have been carried out on this building. Gun-metal casements have been inserted, the pointing of the walls completed, a turret on the battlements has been rebuilt, and various internal improvements carried out. The owner has also built a wall round the Castle with suitable gates.

Llandeloy Church.---This ruined building is shortly to be rebuilt. The ancient walls, except such portions as are not secure, will not be interfered with, and all original features will be preserved.

Prehistoric Weapons.-In October last some objeets were found on the south-eastern side of Precelly Mountain, which were thought to be stone axe-heads, arrow-heads, etc. The gentleman in whose possession they were, upon being communicated with, was kind enough to place them at the disposal of the Association, and furnished particulars of the exact locality where found, etc. Upon examination, they proved to be tield stones only.

St. Michael's, Pembroke.—Two pieces of what was apparently a cross belonging to this Church have been discovered, until now used as a stile by Hill Farm. They will shortly be removed to the precincts of the Church.

St. Daniel's, Pembroke.--Part of a hand-mill or a quern has lately been dug up in the churchyard here, and is being preserved in the Church.

Popton Cross.A portion of the village Cross, found in a garden wall there, bas lately been rescued and set up again by Colonel Mirehouse, of Angle; the shaft was broken, but a piece of concrete has been joined on to it, the whole thing set up on some concrete works; the upper part of the Cross above the arms is missing, but probably is somewhere about, and may be recovered if a careful search is made.

J. W. Phillips, Hon. Secretary.



The newly-formed "Cedewain Field Club" has, during the past year, carried out an admirable and varied programme. Papers have been read. The Excursions were well attended. An excellent Peport of the year's proceedings is edited by the Vice-President, Mr. Basil Evan Jones, a zealous member of the Cambrian Association.

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