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covered in Foregate Street, Chester in 1648, 7 ft. below the surface. It is not now in Chester, but was removed in 1675 to the Ashmolean Museum.

We must close this notice with referring our readers to the fascinating account of the very numerous relics of Roman life in Britain preserved for us in various museums after the lapse of eighteen centuries--the grotesque lamps and lamp-stands, candlesticks, scales, strigils, oculist's stamps, school tablets and stili, bone and bronze needles, seal boxes, personal jewellery, the curiously shaped "Celtic key," the discs for games found in great numbers at Caerwent, Gellygaer, Llantwit.

Hearty thanks are due to Mr. Ward for giving us in this work, within convenient compass, well arranged and excellently "got up," the results of considerable labour and research.


MR. JOHN Ballinger has rendered valuable service to historical students by putting together this catalogue of tracts, now in the National Library of Wales. These tracts, often neglected in libraries or hidden away as of little importance, are most useful in illustrating the course of events in those troublous times. Mr. Ballinger has not only included in this volume the publications dealing with the actual operations of the Civil War, so far as they relate to Wales, but also other tracts of a kindred nature, because they were written by or relate to Welshmen, or persons prominently connected with Welsh affairs. They include such names as James Howell ("Dodona's Grove "), a native of Carmarthenshire; Judge David Jenkins (the sturdy Royalist, imprisoned in Newgate), of Hensol Castle, Glamorgan; Arise Evans, a native of Merionethshire; Griffith Williams, Bishop of Ossory, a Carmarthenshire man ; Thomas Herbert, born at Montgomery, and a brother of Lord Herbert, of Chirbury; William Thomas, of Aber, Carnarvonshire, M.P. for Carnarvon.

An interesting feature is a number of satirical tracts, which show how, after the example of Shakespeare, the Welshman was a frequent butt for English witticism.

The satire and ridicule (considerably developed during the Civil War) are due in a measure to the important part which Wales played in the unhappy conflicts. Several of these tracts have reference to "Mistris Parliament." The earliest of these, dated 1648, April 29, describes "Mistris Parliament Brought to Bed of a Monstrous Childe of Reformation . . . With the Cruelty of Mistris London, her Midwife; and great affection of Mrs. Synod, her Nurse, Mrs. Schisme, Mrs. Priviledge, Mrs. Ordinance, Mrs. Universal Toleration, and Mrs. Leveller, her Gossips."

By Mercurius Melancholicus: "Printed in the yeer of the Saints year 1648."

The mock imprints of two amongst the satirical tracts gave rise to the fallacy that they were printed by a travelling press which followed the army. They are dated 1648, April 11, "Printed at Pembroke and Mongomery." They are satires on the Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, a staunch supporter of the Parliament. He was Visitor of the University of Oxford, and the place of printing was most probably Oxford, then head-quarters of the Royalists. Another, dated February 1642, is entitled "The Welshmens Jubilee: To the Honour of St. David shewing the manner of that solemn Celebration. Describing likewise the true and reall cause why they wear that day a Leek on their Hats.” Other tracts describe the taking of Brecon, Cardiff, Cardigan, Carmarthen, Carnarvon Castle, Chepstow, Conway, Monmouth, Hereford, Aberystwyth, Shrewsbury, Tenby, the siege of Pembroke Castle, Holt, Raglan, Chester, Flint, Montgomery, Oswestry, the surrender of Ruthin and Denbigh Castles. The compiler remarks that, so far as is known, neither the Royalists nor the Parliamentarians made any attempt to influence the Welsh people by means of literature in the native language. A newspaper called The Welsh Mercury appeared in October and November, 1643, but it is not recorded later.

THE Transactions of the Carmarthenshire Antiquarian Society, Part XXI, deal with a great variety of subjects. Among the articles are a list of Pembrey Parish Field-Names; Laugharne Corporation Minutes, 1711-1786; Early Carmarthenshire Nonconformity; Report on Kidwelly Shell Mounds; Sir Richard Steele and his wife.

Six Plates, from sketches by Mr. A. Weight Matthews, are given of a fourteenth-century Canopied Cross, reputed to have come "from the Rood Church, Carmarthen."

In the article on Place Names in the Aman Valley, the writer renders Ynys by "meadow," and connects Penty, Penthouse, with "ty house." The word, however, is of Latin derivation, and occurs as "Pentice" in one of its forms.


The first explanation which the writer gives of Pwll y wrach is undoubtedly the correct one. A collection of instances (with their locality) of the use of the Welsh word for "Hag" would be interesting. Why does the writer so frequently run together the component parts of names, as Pwllywrach, Penrheolddu, Pwllymerched, Tirdanyrheol, Twllygwyddyl? He is not alone in this practice, which, in the interest of Welsh literature, is to be lamented.

Archaeological Notes and Queries

CAERWENT EXCAVATIONS.-The Report of the Excavations carried out at Caerwent in 1909 and 1910, recently communicated to the Society of Antiquaries (Archæologia, lxii) by Dr. Ashby and Messrs. Hudd and King, records a variety of interesting discoveries. "It is now practically certain that the city was divided into twenty insula, by four streets running north and south, intersecting the three streets running east and west." Some of these were surprisingly narrow and irregular, obviously with little traffic. The surface was about 13 in. below grass-level, and was of very rough pitching; 6 in. below this was a layer of better pitching of large stones and gravel.

Amongst the many fibula were several of the second century A.D., one with a plain knob at the upper end of the bow; another having a rectangular plate in the centre of the bow, which was decorated, with a circular pattern in enamel. A fine bronze cross

bow fibula (fourth century A.D.) was found 1 ft. below the grasssurface; not far distant, another with no spiral spring, an elongated cross-piece at the top and a ring beyond, probably of second century A.D. In the same house (VIII N) were unearthed the fragments of a fine Samian bowl at a depth of 14 ft. 6 in. There were seven rivetholes in it, where it had been mended in Roman times. The bowl has been carefully put together, and is now in the Museum at Caerwent. Several hoards of coins were brought to light, the dates of one lot, small brasses, ranging from Gallienus to Honorius, including Claudius Gothicus, Helena, Julian "the Apostate" (a curious little coin, with head to right, inscribed IMP. JUL.), Magnus Maximus, Arcadius. A small black pear-shaped pot contained six coins of Carausius, A.D. 287-93, and four of Alectus, A.D. 294-7, all in mint condition, several of the Pax Augusti type, but no two exactly alike. They seemed to have been but recently struck when deposited, and appear never to have been in circulation.

In the House XVI S was a small yellow sandstone altar, bearing the inscription:





V. S. L. M

The title OCELUS for Mars also occurs on the pedestal discovered in 1904, and on an altar at Carlisle. It appears as if this was the British equivalent of LENUS, a title of Mars not uncommon on the Rhine.

House XXII N has an especial interest. It contains eleven rooms, and quite unlike any other building as yet discovered at Caerwent. It has a frontage of 110 ft. to the street, and for the most part is only two rooms in depth from the street frontage line,

Room 1 had a pavement of rough slabs of stone; Room 2 had a good gravel concrete floor 3 ft. below grass-level, and was entered from Room 7.

Room 7 had a good pavement of red brick tessera preserved at its western end, but the pavement was destroyed at the east end and in the apse. Several small white and blue lias and red brick tessera were found in the apse, which probably had a finer pavement. Coins of Tetricus I, Theodora Augusta, Constans, Constantinus II, Valentinian I, all much worn, were found in the room, also coins of Allectus, Carausius, and Constantine in the apse. The plan of the group formed by Rooms 1, 2, 6, 7, 10 and 11 (in the opinion of the excavators), "resembles somewhat that of an early church, but it would be very rash to assert that it was such a building."

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The same remark is made of House XXIV N, in which "the plan of Rooms 4 (which has an apse at its western end) and 5 rather suggests a small church, in which 4 would be the chancel with two small transepts, and a wide opening to the nave, Room 5. The rough slabs near the east end of Room 5 may possibly have been foundations for a screen to form a narthex. This is, however, very doubtful.

To the south of House XVIII S was a burial-ground of postRoman date, in which several skeletons were found. The bodies had been buried from above after the Roman walls had been covered. The skeletons were all lying with the heads towards the west, and had been buried without coffins, and apparently without clothes or other objects, except that an iron spear-head was found close to one of the skeletons, and this is said by the British Museum authorities to be of a late-Celtic type. Some of the skulls, according to Professor Macalister, are not Saxon, but of the later RomanoBritish type, all of one race, and like the skulls that are got from pre-Saxon or early-Saxon times in places where the Saxon admixture is small or none.

In the Vicarage Orchard, round a Roman building similar in plan to the shops on the south side of the high road, were found thirty skeletons. One of these was buried in a coffin built of slabs of old red sandstone, which had probably been taken from the floor of one of the rooms of the house. A coin of Victorinus and several illegible minims were found. In one of the rooms of House XVIS


a curious discovery was made, 21 ft. below the surface, of a huge piece of bone, portion of a femur of a large whale. Other portions of the same skeleton were found in the same house later.

In an Appendix on the Insect 'Remains, Mr. Arthur Lyell observes that the furniture beetles, Anobium, would appear to have been a house-pest even in Roman times, remains being found in six instances at Silchester, and in three localities at Caerwent. Wooden furniture is very rarely found on either site. Nevertheless, these beetles suggests that furniture did exist in Romano-British times in England, apart from any written history or evidence that may exist on other sites. But it is possible that the beetles may have been in the woodwork of the houses.

As a whole, the species are such as one might expect to find now. From both Caerwent and Silchester the earwig, Forficula, occurs, also pupa of Diptera and Acari, whereas Silchester can alone boast of the ant and a larva of a moth.

COCHWILLAN. Dr. Cochrane, in his most interesting and useful notice of Siamber Wen, in Arch. Camb., 1912, page 33, refers to Coch willan, Carnarvonshire. He assigns the date of the erection of a part of the house to about A.D. 1360, when, according to J. E. in Arch. Camb., 1866, "Griffith ap Gwilym of Penrhyn gave Cochwillan to his second son Robert." In my paper on Cochwillan in Arch. Camb., 1896, I pointed out that it appeared a mistake had been made in assigning the event to this date, and that Robert does not seem to have come into the property till the fifteenth century. The data for this opinion are given in the paper. I venture to think that all the ancient work at Cochwillan belongs to this later period.

I think the solar would have been situated behind the screen at the upper end of the Hall, and not at the lower end, over the buttery, as suggested by J. E. It would then have occupied a similar position to that assigned for this apartment by Dr. Cochrane at Siamber Wen and at Rathumney.

The main axis of Cochwillan is east and west, and in this respect agrees with Siamber Wen. At Cochwillan, the south wall, east of the screens is modern. The building apparently extended southwards at this end, and may have had a single shallow transept, corresponding to one of those at Siamber Wen, and may have contained the stairs, as at Rathumney.

11th March, 1912.


CELT FOUND IN THE GOP CAVE, NEWMARKET, FLINTSHIRE. The Celt, of which the enclosed is a photograph, was found by a friend of mine-Mr. J. H. Morris-in the Gop Cave, Newmarket, Flintshire. You will perhaps recollect that Professor Boyd Dawkins excavated here, and the results were published in Arch. Camb. some few years ago. It is 8 in. long, 33 in. wide, 13 in. thick. MEREDITH J. HUGHES.

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