Page images

The floor of S.E. corridor was 1 ft. gravel and 4 in. clay. At 8 ft. from door a large amount of charcoal. The inner court on the E. side was bounded by two

[graphic][merged small]

large squares of stone masonry, both originally, I should say, 6 ft. square. In a direct line with these was a buttress, 4 ft. 6 in. long by 3 ft. 6 in., having foundations 4 ft. deep of river boulder and dressed stones placed on their edges, many of them from 3 ft. to 4 ft.

long, and capable of bearing enormous weight. The wall of the Sacellum protrudes here 2 ft., and the wall of the smaller chamber, contrary to all the other interior walls, is 2 ft. thick. From this I would suggest that there was an upper storey, and, for reasons given further on, I think that it was carried over the two chambers N. of the Sacellum. These conclusions may be altered when the remaining rooms have been excavated.

The floor was 10 in. of stamped clay.

[graphic][merged small][merged small]

By the side of the chamber (9) was a small brick platform, 4 ft. long, 2 ft. wide, and 1 ft. high. In front of the platform were two post-holes.

Two more post-holes occur between the two squares of masonry. Two occur between the Sacellum and the most southern square of masonry, about 1 ft. square. By the buttress were found a number of bricks, and a quantity of broken pavement.

Finds.-A large quantity of nails, two fibulæ, broken pottery, and an iron instrument, possibly a bradawl.

The roadway up to the centre had a gravel floor 12 in. deep.

The inner court on the S. side is bounded by a 2-ft. wall with deep foundations, which is carried on for a distance of 10 ft. In line with this is a square of masonry, 6 ft. by 4 ft., similar to those on the opposite side, and by the outer wall of the Prætorium there is a buttress.

The floor on the N. side is 1 ft. clay, on the S. side 2 ft. At the E. corner of the wall is a post-hole sunk in the solid clay, and between the square and buttress we found a support made of stones to take a post.

By the outer wall of the Prætorium is a thick square of masonry, 2 ft. square, which may possibly be the site of a stone pillar, as the workmen told me (this portion was opened before I arrived) that a number of pillarstones had been found here. The floor was paved.

Finds.-Several pieces of pottery, a silver coin (Antoninus), and a bronze coin. By the side of the buttress I found a door-hanger.


At the N. end is a room (9) in an unusual position. The floor was 8 ft. gravel, and the inside wall between it and the inner court had brick foundations.

There were no finds of importance here.

The angle chamber W. of Room 10 measures 10 ft. 6 in. by 13 ft., beyond which is a larger room. Both these chambers had their floors higher than the remainder of the Prætorium. Only a portion of the N. wall remained. The floor was composed of 2 in. of brick cement (formed of lime and pounded brick), 3 in. clay, 4 in. brick-cement, and 12 in. of clay. On the second floor of brick-cement (4 in.) was found a large amount of small, selected water-worn stones, possibly slingstones. I do not consider that their occurrence here is accidental. There were four post-holes in Room 10, but they may have belonged to an earlier building, later excavations may confirm this hypothesis. Possibly

Room 10 was entered through Room 9. Against the E. wall of the former, which was completely ruined, was found a mass of charcoal, which I may suggest was the remains of a door leading into Room 9. By the side of the wall dividing Rooms 10 and 11 were found a number of bricks.

The finds here, in comparison with the remainder of the Prætorium, were numerous. There were a large

[graphic][merged small]


number of fragments of bronze, evidently portions of ornaments, but so much decomposed that in many cases it was only discernible by its colour. bronze coins (Antoninus 1). In the centre of the room, 1 ft. below the surface, a small lump of decayed wood or charcoal, in the middle of which was a lump of bronze. I conclude that it had been a bronze ornament or charm, which had been hidden, and had lost its shape either by the action of fire or Time. Various

portions of glass in shape of window-glass, vessels, and counters, also two iron calthrops, or crows' feet, about 2 in. long. They were so shaped that, however they were thrown down, one point always stood up. They were used in ancient as in modern warfare, as obstacles to hamper the approach of cavalry, or bare-footed infantry; these were for the latter purpose, as is proved by their small size.


This was probably entered direct from the court, but all its walls have been robbed down to the foundations. The wall nearest to the Sacellum was 3 ft. thick, with deep foundations. It is difficult to account for this great thickness, unless it was a support for an upper chamber. At the corner nearest the outside wall were a number of pillar-stones.

A patch of red clay, 5 ft. by 2 ft., in the centre of the room, probably marking the site of a hearth.

Two post-holes; in the centre hole the remains of a long post, 3 ft. down; part possibly of the remains of the older building, which was built on a sleeper bed, as is found at Ardoch. The floor was slightly different to Room 10-3 in. stamped clay, 1 in. wood, 10 in. stamped clay, 1 in. wood, 10 in. stamped clay. A buttress on the E. side was evidently intended to serve as a support for a wooden beam or pillar.

The finds here were fewer-several fewer several portions of window-glass by the E. and W. wall, a small amount of pottery, a large quantity of nails and charcoal, a few remains of decomposed bronze, and small portions of glass vessels.


This chamber presents the exceptional feature of possessing double walls, divided by a packing of clay 2 ft. thick, guarding it on three sides. The floor of the Sacellum is 2 ft. lower than those of Rooms 10

« PreviousContinue »