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Two fragments of rim of vessel. Black outside, yellowishgrey inside, section blackish-grey; apparently about same diameter as D1. Marked D2. See illustration, Fig. 6.
One piece of rim, of same material as D2, marked D3. See illustration, Fig. 6.
Two fragments of rim, greyish outside and inside, section red. Marked D. See illustration, Fig. 6.
Three small fragments of pottery, blackish-grey outside, grey inside, section red. Marked D.
Seven small fragments, blackish-grey outside, grey inside, section blackish-grey. Marked Do.
Three fragments of rim of small vessel, yellowish-drab inside and out, section yellow with red core, formed with horizontal bands, the vertical section of each band a convex curve. Diameter of rim 2 in. Marked D7. illustration, Fig. 6. Twenty small fragments of pottery, one fragment with a vertical convex curve of in. in 1 in. and horizontal in. in 13 in. Another fragment in one plane vertically, horizontally curved in. in 1 in. Apparently fragments of 2 vessels. Yellowish-drab outside, reddish inside, red section. Marked DS.
One fragment, apparently portion of a handle. Reddishyellow outside. Section red. Marked Do. See illustration, Fig. 6.
One fragment, apparently portion of a neck of a small vessel. Reddish-yellow outside, red inside, section red. Marked D10 See illustration, Fig. 6. Portion of handle, D,9 probably belongs to this vessel.
Many fragments of utterly decayed pottery, quite disintegrated, which could not be removed.
Much charcoal distributed throughout the hut. One spindlewhorl; stone, 2 in. to 2 in. diameter. Thickness, § in. See illustration D, Fig. 7.
One flat beach pebble, 4 in. by 21 in. by
Twenty-one pebbles; none very large.
in., used as a
Four small fragments of an iron article, too far corroded to determine the object. Suggestive of a boss of some description.
A few fragments of bone; the long bones split as usual.
Hut E is oval on plan. The walls are in a very poor and dilapidated condition. It measures, approximately,
16 ft. 8 in. from N. to S., and 15 ft. 6 in. from E. to W. internally. The highest portion of the wall is 3 ft. 9 in. above the ancient floor level. The entrance faces E.N.E., and is 3 ft. 11 in. wide at the internal end. The entrance was blocked with large fallen stones and slabs, and was not cleared. At a distance of 2 ft. to the S.S. W. of the entrance, against the outer wall, was a hearth-stone, tilted up at a sharp angle
away from the wall.
This stone was covered with
charcoal. It measured 2 ft. 3 in. long by 1 ft. 4 in. wide. Straight in front of the entrance, about 4 ft. from same, within the hut, was another flat stone, with the signs of much burning on it. There were no signs of animal fatty refuse in the floor of this hut. The soil was only a few inches in thickness. The back, or western portion of the floor was composed of large rough slabs on the native rock. There was not more than 1 in. of earth over this portion, which occupied about one third of the floor area. The three spindle
whorls and fragments of pottery, described in detail below, were found in the southern half.
The following are particulars of the items found in Hut E:
Spindle-whorl. Stone. Stone. Slightly broken. Diameter, 13 in. Thickness about in. See illustration E1, Fig. 7. Spindle-whorl. Stone. Slightly broken. Diameter, 19 in. to 11 in. Thickness about 1 in. Piercing differs from those of other spindle-whorls in that it tapers slightly and regularly as opposed to the slightly irregular conical sinkings from either side of the other examples. There are some scratchings on one face of an irregular fivesided figure, with four rays, extending from the piercing, which appear to be artificial. See illustration E, Fig. 7. Spindle-whorl of baked clay. Irregular in outline. Diameter about 24 in. by 2 in. Thickness about in. Split into two pieces. See illustration E3, Fig. 7. Pottery. One fragment. Greyish-black. One very small fragment of yellowish pottery. Pebble, 43 in. by 3 in. by 1 in., used as rubber. Pebble, 5 in. by 31 in. by 2 in., used as rubber.
Pebble, 3 in. by 2 in. by 13 in., used as rubber.
Pebble, 5 in. by 31 in. by 11 in., used as pounder and for rubbing.
Pebble, 4 in. by 34 in. by 21 in., used as pounder and for rubbing.
Eight other pebbles of various sizes.
A few bones (Femur of Horse).
The brooch-pin and specimens of pottery D', D2, D3, D*, D7, D3, D9, and D10, have been submitted to Mr. C. H. Read, of the British Museum. He very kindly examined them and wrote:
"The relics you have sent are interesting but fragmentary. The brooch is certainly a La Tène type, may be first or even second century B.C., but it is too imperfect to say more with certainty. The dark piece of pottery, with the surface rubbed, is also late Celtic and more or less contemporary with the brooch. The other pottery I would have classed as Roman, first century, A.D."
The various bones have been submitted to Professor
Boyd Dawkins. He identified the tooth found in
Hut A as the lower true molar of Bos longifrons, and a long bone found in Hut E as the femur of a horse. The rest were too much broken to be identified.
The following is a summary of the objects found in the various huts:
Hut A. Numerous rough rubbing-stones, pounders or mullers pot-boilers, and odd pebbles.
An iron ring.
A few bones and teeth.
A little charcoal.
Hut B.-Bronze pin.
A little charcoal.
A few pounders, rubbing-stones, etc.
Hut D.-Fragments of pottery of numerous vessels.
Pebbles, but only one indicating its use as a rubber.
A few bones.
Hut E.-Three spindle-whorls.
Small fragments of pottery.
Pounders, rubbing-stones, and pebbles.
A few bones.
The numerous remains of pottery, and the sticky nature of the soil, indicate that the preparation of food and its consumption probably were largely carried on in Hut D.
Hut E apparently was chiefly reserved for other work, such as weaving and spinning.
Huts A and B go together. The remains of pottery are entirely absent on these sites.
The relics, found so far, show that the inhabitants used rough stone pebbles in carrying on much of their work; that they occupied themselves in weaving and spinning; that they used vessels of wheel-turned pottery; that their domestic animals included Bos longifrons and the horse; that they ate flesh and employed pot-boilers to heat their water; that they used objects of iron, and that bronze pins were not unknown to them.
The camp may have been occupied for a considerable time. Some of the pottery belongs certainly to the Roman period. The brooch is decidedly of a late La Tène type, though that in itself is insufficient to date the building in which it was found. It will further be noticed that Mr. Read assigns one piece of pottery to the same period. The work of excavation is, however, not sufficiently advanced to allow safe conclusions to be drawn as to the period of the construction of the camp. It may be possible that it dates from different periods and that the original camp occupied only a portion of its later area. It should be noticed, however, that the oldest relic found so farthe bronze pin-was discovered in a hut without the inner wall.
During the week's operations, Mr. Willoughby Gardner very kindly came over on two days and gave valuable suggestions. Further assistance was given by the Rev. J. C. Hughes, who spent the week on the mountain with me.