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in the Excursions. It was his (the Archdeacon's) pleasure and privilege to place his successor in his seat. It had been his good fortune to see many excellent occupants of the chair, for his memory carried him back to Bishop Thirlwall, Bishop Basil Jones, Freeman, and a host of others. They were also pleased that they had with them that day such a renowned scholar as Professor Sayce. The position of President was the highest honour they could bestow on one of their Members, and he felt perfectly certain that his old friend—and such he had the privilege to call him after fifty years' acquaintance would admirably fill the chair, and well maintain its reputation. The name of Professor Boyd Dawkins was so well known to all scholars and archæologists, as well as to many others who did not come under either heading, that no further introduction was necessary. He had pleasure in asking Professor William Boyd Dawkins to take the chair.

Professor Boyd Dawkins, who was received with a round of applause, said he felt greatly the honour they had conferred on him in requesting him to occupy that chair. He appreciated the honour of succeeding in the chair of the Association a long line of illustrious Presidents who had enlarged the boundaries of history, topography, and architecture, and had thrown light on the darkness that covered the pre-history of Britain and of Europe at the time when the Association was founded. The Association was established at the beginning of the great scientific renaissance of the latter half of the nineteenth century, when antiquarian researches were being reduced to system, and the growth of the Association coincided with the period in which archæology became a science ruled like the rest by the laws of a strict induction. It had indeed largely contributed to the renaissance, not only by its work but by its example, followed by societies and clubs throughout Wales now exploring the antiquities of their several districts and collecting materials to be embodied later by the Royal Commission, presided over by Sir John Rhys, into an archeological Domesday Book of Wales. He also particularly felt the honour for the reason that he was almost a Welshman. It was by the merest accident that he was not born in Wales and, as he had the misfortune to be born on Offa's Dyke, he was a Marcher. But for that unfortunate accident he was a Welshman, and as good a one as any present. He felt equal admiration for their beautiful country as one born under the shadow of Snowdon. He cordially thanked them for the honour conferred upon him.

Mr. H. E. Prichard (Chairman of the Urban Council) said that when he entered that room he was rather surprised to see the class of people assembled there. His impression of the Cambrian Archæological Association was that it was composed of old folks, perhaps some of them as old as Methuselah, who devoted their talents to bringing to light the hidden things of centuries. But he was mistaken, for he saw the enthusiasm of the young with the staid, honoured, and experienced. Whether young or old, all were

greatly indebted to the Members for the little knowledge possessed of their historical and ancient ruins. The Association was highly honoured-and Abergele was equally honoured-in having as its President such a learned scientist as Professor Boyd Dawkins, who was not only one of the leading authorities ou archæological research, but one of the greatest scientific men of the world to-day. The Members of the Abergele Urban District Council were present that evening on behalf of the district to give the Members of the Association a most hearty and cordial welcome to that locality. He could only regret that their welcome was not of a more substantial character, and he hoped that, as a result of their visit, many hidden things would be brought to light. He had read with the greatest interest the work of the local branch of the Association, and he hoped that, as a result of the visit to Abergele that week, they would one and all take a deeper interest in archæological research. He trusted that, under the presidency of Professor Boyd Dawkins, the Abergele district would be more thoroughly explored. In conclusion, he wished the Members a pleasant time, and trusted that they would be favoured with fine weather, and also that their visit to Abergele would be one of profit as well as of pleasure.

Canon Jones, on behalf of the Abergele Antiquarian Association, also extended to the Cambrian Archæological Association a very hearty welcome. They were deeply sensible of the honour conferred on the district by that visit, and he felt that the visit would provide much food for thought. Their district was considered to be fairly rich in the footprints of the historic past, and their local Association, although young, was strong in Members and growing in the acquisition of knowledge. By means of excursions in the summer and lectures in the winter they had acquired a great deal of knowledge, and they were greatly indebted to the friends in the district for the great interest taken in the Association, and also to the Members of the Cambrian Archæological Association for the assistance they had given them. He hoped the visit that week would stimulate research, and that pleasure and profit would be the result.

The President said that on behalf of the Association he wished to thank the Council and the local Association for their very cordial welcome. He could say that by the local work which was going on they were adding to the knowledge of the pre-history of Wales. He hoped they would continue their good work.

Professor Boyd Dawkins then gave a most interesting lecture on "Certain Fixed Points in the Pre-History of Wales." The lecture was illustrated by a number of very fine slides, and amongst those shewn were several connected with the research work by the lecturer in the neighbourhood of Cefn, St. Asaph, and Newmarket. The lantern was skilfully manipulated by the Rev. D. R. Griffiths. In his opening remarks the lecturer said there were a few matters to which he wished to refer prior to beginning his lecture. Since they last met there had taken place in Wales an event which was of the highest importance to the Principality. He referred to the Investi

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ture of the Prince of Wales at Carnarvon. As Members of the Cambrian Archæological Association they wished to do homage to their Prince, and to wish him long life and a happy reign. There were other noteworthy events which had taken place since their last meeting, and in particular he would refer to the publication of The History of Wales, by Professor Lloyd, and also to The History of the Military Conquest of Wales, by Professor Harrison. In the one case it was a Welsh University which had given them the work, and in the other Oxford.

Proceeding, the President said it was in the caves and cairns of Wales that he found his call to the study of the pre-history of that country, and Wales gave him the standards from which he had dealt with the successive civilisations and the sequence of races in the British Islands and in Western Europe. Defining the limits of the pre-history of Wales as beginning at the close of the remote period known by the geologists as Pleistocene and ending with the Roman Conquest of Britain, Dr. Boyd Dawkins said he would concentrate his attention on the evolution of the Welsh people from the various races who, in succession, established themselves in Wales in the Neolithic, Bronze, and Pre-Historic Iron Ages. The lecture, with illustrations and additional matter, will be found in earlier pages of this Part of Arch. Camb.

In proposing a vote of thanks to the President for his lecture, Sir Edward Anwyl said they had received that evening great enlightenment on many subjects, from a very learned mind, and it had been a great pleasure to listen to the lecture, as many very important subjects had been dealt with by a master hand.

Professor Sayce seconded, and said that he had never listened to a more lucid discourse. Many subjects had been placed before them in a light they had never seen before. He was sure they would be pleased to know that the lecture, together with many illustrations, would be published in the Journal of the Association. The vote of thanks was carried with applause.


On Wednesday morning the Cambrians, largely increased in number, left Pensarn Station by the 9.7 train for Bettws y Coed. Here the old Church with the interesting effigy of Gruffydd ap Davydd Goch claimed attention. This effigy, 6 ft. 4 in. in length, of a knight clad in the defensive armour of the fourteenth century, is placed under a sepulchral arch in the N. chancel-wall, having along the edge of the slab on which it rests the inscription in Longobardic letters :

× Wic: jacet: Grufyd: ap Davyd: Goch:

Agnus : Dei : Miscre[re] me[i].

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Mr. Matthew Bloxam (Arch. Camb., 1874) remarks that sculptured effigies like this, represented in studded armour, are of extreme rarity.

Canon Morris read a short paper by Mr. Laws and Miss Edwards comparing this with the effigy in Llanuwchllyn Church, illustrated in Arch. Camb., 1885.

They are very similar to each other, and are peculiarly Welsh in character, both have Latin inscriptions in Longobardic lettering, that at Llanuwchllyn bearing date M. CCC. LXX—

Both warriors lie with head on a tilting-helm, and feet resting on a lion. Each wears the conical bascinet or helmet of the period, decorated with a four-leaved flower on either side, but the Llanuwchllyn figure has a further row of these flowers edging his bascinet, the latter may be an ornamented form of vervelles (or loops through which a thong passed attaching the bascinet to the chain tippet below). Each also wears the camail or mail tippet, and a shirt of mail, which is visible under the arms and below the jupon, or closefitting tunic. Both wear roundels of plate at shoulder and elbow, and their arms are defended by brassarts and vambraces of plate, the rivets being very clearly marked, but the Bettws y Coed effigy has epaulières of overlapping plate, while that at Llanuwchllyn has elbow-guards or coudières of conical form with scalloped divisions; the gauntlets of both figures have articulated fingers with conspicuous rivets. Over the right shoulder of the Llanuwchllyn effigy passes what appears to be a strap ornamented at intervals with four-leaved flowers. (This may be the guige or shield-strap, but it is not apparent from the drawing whether or no a shield was worn.) In both cases the armorial bearings are exhibited on the jupon, those of Gruffydd ap Davyd Goch at Bettws being a chevron and two oakleaves in chief, while in those of Johannes ap Gruffydd ap Madoc ap Jorwerth, the field appears to be divided by a chevron with five roses and a wolf's head enclosed, and four roses in chief. The latter jupon carries a scalloped edge. Both effigies are girdled with a bawdrick or belt, that at Bettws ornamented with square platteines centred by four-leaved flowers, and finished with a small shield carrying the wearer's arms as before (a chevron and two oakleaves in chief): the Llanuwchllyn bawdrick is shown on the engraving as plain in front, but having square platteines at the sides, it has probably been rubbed down: there seem also to be two other narrow belts of laminated rings or small circular plates round this figure, while a curious arrangement of straps depends in front. The thighs are in each case enclosed in cuisses of plate, genouillières cover the knees and jambs the legs, these latter are attached by straps passing behind the leg. Sollerets or shoes of laminated and scalloped plate cover the feet, spur-leathers only are shown at Llanuwchllyn, while Bettws y Coed has seven-pointed rowel spurs. A great many rivets are visible in both figures: those on the jambs of Johannes ap Gruffydd looking like large buttons.

We have effigies of this period in Pembrokeshire, two in St.

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