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in sandstone rock in many places. The Indians from earliest times, have collected it from springs and used it for medicinal purposes. Whether it exists in sufficient quantities to furnish an article of commerce, remains unsettled.

Considerable expenditures have been made in borings in Miami county, and oil in quantities was obtained, but the final results were unsatisfactory. Professor Mudge says:

"It is found at so many different places, that it is reasonable to suppose that a large body may exist below. The nature of the clay shales which compose a large portion of the deposits for seven or eight hundred feet below the surface, would not readily allow it to come up, if it were there. Should it be found in paying quantities it is probable that it will be below the coal measures. No one should invest in the business more than he could afford to lose without embarrassment. The question cannot be considered as settled without numerous borings to a depth of eight hundred or one thousand feet."


Professor Swallow says: "There are several beds of purple shales in the coal measures which appear to have all the properties of a good outside paint. One of these beds has been used at Parkville and other places, and found beautiful, durable, and fire proof when used in thick coats. The bed thus proved is over ten feet thick, and crops out in the bluff of the Missouri all the way from White Cloud to Wyandotte, and up the Kansas to Lawrence. It also appears southeast to Mound City. Other beds which appear equally valuable crop out on the Big Blue, the Neosho, the Cottonwood and the Verdigris.'

At Fort Scott, twenty-five miles south of Mound City, a vein or bed of paint was discovered after the

above was written. This is a few feet below the surface, and is extensively used in that locality. It is also coming to be an article of export to other places, and gives good satisfaction. There is no room for doubt that in Kansas, awaiting development, there is material for making a fire proof and water proof paint for roofs, as well as for walls and fences.

Learning of a deposit of paint at Osage City on the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad, I addressed a letter of inquiry to one of the principal citizens of the place, Mr. John F. Dodds, and received the following reply, dated March 1st, 1871:

The "The mineral paint at our place is ochre. vein or bed is about three fourths of a mile in width, one mile or more in length, and twelve feet six inches thick. It lies from five to eight feet below the surface, and upon a strata of solid limestone rock, varying in thickness from two to three feet. The pigment has been analyzed by Dr. W. H. Saunders, of Lawrence, and by Dr. Murray, of Dayton, Ohio, with the following results, viz:


Alum ..............................




"I send you the following figures, taken from accurate measurement of the strata underneath our town:

Section of 34 feet 8 inches below the surface.

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Notwithstanding the abundant supply of excellent stone for building purposes, many people prefer to build of brick. There is a plentiful supply of clay for brick making, and it is often so intermixed with sand as to be ready for tempering and molding. With clay and timber convenient to the house site, a farmer may, with the aid of an experienced brick maker, and two or three cheap hands, burn a kiln of brick at a small cost for the construction of his buildings. When sold at kilns, the prices range from eight dollars to ten dollars per thousand, in the season for the business, but the supply is always exhausted before the demand ceases in the fall, and prices become somewhat higher.


From what has been said of the configuration of the country, and of the location of stone quarries, it will readily be seen that it is little trouble to make quick lime. Any of the limestone rock makes lime, but the strongest quality obtained from common limestone, is made from the darker layers. All the varieties of magnesian limestone, make strong and white lime.

Having selected a good quarry, and one need not go far to find it, an excavation of the desired size is made in the side of the hill, all quarries being upon the edge of a declivity. This opening is walled up from the bottom, and an open arch five or six feet high is left on the lower side, where the fuel is put in and the lime taken out when burned. The top of the kiln is drawn partly together to cause a draft. Rock are then laid up roughly on the bottom in the form of an arch, to contain fuel, and upon this rough arch the stones for lime are thrown

from the top, until the kiln is full. Either wood or coal is used for fuel, and a brisk fire is kept up three or four days, after which the lime is ready for use. When coal is used it is mixed with the stone, instead of being placed under it, as is the case with wood. The lime thus burned is somewhat injured chemically, owing to the presence of more or less sulphur in the coal. To obviate this, a patent coal kiln is used, wherein water can be applied in such manner as to counteract the effects of the sulphur. If left in the kiln the top and entrance should be covered to keep out water. Lime long exposed to the air re-absorbs carbonic acid, which was thrown off by burning, and becomes limestone again, in a finely pulverized state.

In slacking lime, add to it at once enough water to cover it, and stir it constantly.until it is slacked, when it should be of the cousistency of cream. If only a little water is added at a time it injures the quality of the lime.

Fresh lime is largely used by many eastern farmers, and especially in the famous and fertile Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, as a top dressing for the soil, five to fifteen bushels per acre being applied about every ten years. That valley is in a limestone formation. There is little doubt that much of our Kansas soil would be benefited by the application of lime. For whatever purposes needed, whether mechanical or agricultural, it is abundant in Kansas. It sells at the kiln for about twenty cents per bushel and with a good profit to the burner.


The western third of Kansas now demands our particular attention-the portion so lately included in that mythical region, "The Great American Desert." I am firmly persuaded that no portion of the

United States east of the Rocky Mountains deserves this title, for the simple reason that there is no desert. Wherever buffalo, antelope, and deer graze and fatten, there domestic cattle may also graze and fatten, and it is known that these animals have from



time immemorial, ranged in countless numbers in all the region called the plains. Certainly it is a misnomer to speak of any country as a desert, that will, by a few months grazing, so fatten cattle that they actually compete in Eastern markets with stall-fed

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