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terraces, or steps all the way westward. Then consider that excepting some of the river bottoms, there are no flat surfaces in the State, but that the entire face of the country is swept by valleys, and rolls, and gentle bluffs, and it is easy to see why the rock is found on almost every farm, so situated at its projecting edges as to be convenient, but not troublesome. Above the rock are several feet of earth and soil, and below it, upon the sloping sides of the bluff or roll, is to be found a soil which is especially deep, quick and fertile.

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Horace Greeley writes from Kansas to the New York Tribune, October 9, 1870, as follows: "Whenever a declevity, however moderate, is seen, choice limestone for fencing, or building, or burning, may be rapidly taken out with the pick or bar. Most of it is in flat, square, (or oblong) blocks of ten to sixty pounds, whereof the poorest may be laid up with facility into excellent wall, leaving the better available for building. This limestone has yielded, and is still yielding, near the surface, to decay, enriching the soil, while increasing the facility with which the uncorroded portions are broken into convenient blocks for use."

With this rock, wells, cisterns and cellars are walled, and foundations laid for wooden or brick buildings, while cheap and substantial buildings are erected of stone. Many hundred miles of stone wall have been built at a cost of $1.50 to $2.50 per rod. Frequently the rock is quarried on the fence line, and the wall laid by the side of the ditch thus made. Judge James Hanway, of Lane, writes me: "I have a stone wall which three hands quarried, hauled and put up at the rate of four rods per day, using two yoke of oxen, and a low wagon, and hauling a few rods. A skillful man can lay up five rods in a day, while others would be industrious at two rods."

The following account lately appeared in the Topeka Daily Commonwealth, of a new quarry of flagstone opened at Osage City, on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad, thirty-five miles from Topeka : "The visitor sees, laid one over another in beautiful regularity, layer after layer of blue limestone, from one to four inches thick, in slabs from three to eight feet wide and from ten to thirty feet in length. These flag-stones are as smooth and even as a board, and are so situated that they may be taken up, one after another, with wonderful rapidity. The toughness of this stone may be estimated when I say that I saw a slab twenty-four feet in length, three feet wide and only three inches and a quarter in thickness, and weighing 2,800 pounds, suspended by a chain in the middle of it without breaking! It is very hard and durable, and can be put down in sidewalks for much less than our cut stone walks, and will be equal if not superior to the very best of them. The thinner grade of flagging will make good walks for front yards, gardens, etc., and can be put down almost as cheap as board walks. The quarry is known to extend a mile along the edge of a ravine. The side track from the railroad to the ledge will soon be completed."

This rock has the appearance of slate, but an acid test indicates the presence of lime. I have examined the stone and seen it placed in sidewalks, and it promises to be very valuable. I measured one slab which was brought to Topeka. Its dimensions were 7 feet wide, 28 feet long and three inches thick. Stone of the same quality was found near Vineland, in Douglas county, several years ago, and used to pave sidewalks in Lawrence. One layer less than two inches thick, was used upon a sidewalk which has stood constant usage for about six years with little injury. This ledge did not prove to be extensive.

Occasionally a traveler, following the principal roads which uniformly seek the high divides to avoid streams, will pass over a rocky piece of ground which looks uninviting. But no man need purchase such land, (although it is valuable for pasturage,) when there is a plenty to be had for nothing, or at a nominal cost, as beautiful and as fertile as any the sun shines upon, and which has upon it rock sufficient for use.

Magnesian limestone and gypsum, which together cover an area including most of western Kansas, can be cut with hatchet or saw like wood, into blocks of any desired size, which soon harden upon exposure to the air. The former stone has been extensively shipped from Junction City to the Missouri River, where are large factories, at which it is sawed and turned into various shapes for architectural purposes. It is reckoned by scientific men as among the most durable kinds of rock in the world. The State House at Topeka, is built of it. The abutments to the Leavenworth bridge are also magnesian limestone.

Until recently it has been supposed that magnesian limestone was not to be found far east of Manhattan, but I find it exists in all parts of the State in isolated quarries, and geologists say there are more than twenty varieties. There is a fine ledge near Quenemo, in Osage county, others near Pomona, Franklin county, others in Johnson and the eastern portion of Miami counties. In Labette county it is abundant, and probably will be found in nearly every county in the State. In township seven, range sixteen, Jackson county, this is the prevailing stone, while in the remainder of the county it is not known to exist.

The sandstone as well as limestone, is firm in texture and is largely used for building purposes. It should be understood that stone needs seasoning as

well as lumber, before it is used for good work. When quarried it contains a considerable quantity of water, and upon drying may expose seams not at first observable. If cut and used for fronts while still damp, and cold weather comes on immediately, it is liable to be cracked by the expansion of the water it contains. Fine buildings have thus been disfigured in Kansas through the ignorance, or more likely the neglect, of builders who did not like to delay their work. Stone is frequently thus condemned, when in reality it only needed seasoning.

MARBLE.

This variety of limestone is found in many places in Kansas, ordinarily of various shades of buff, brown and black. No white marble has been discovered.

Marbles have been found at Fort Scott, near Lawrence, also in Doniphan county, at Leavenworth and other localities, which take a fine polish. The Fort Scott marble is black, "full of yellowish veins." The Leavenworth marble was found in sinking the coal shaft hereafter described. It is four hundred feet below the surface; its thickness is sixteen feet three -inches, and it is described as "solid, fine in grain, of a drab color, very handsomely mottled, and the hardest merchantable marble in the United States."

Experts who have examined Kansas marbles say that the quality is such that a large demand may be supplied for mantle pieces, tops to bureaus, washstands, etc., but the question of export depends altogether upon the fashion as to colors. In other words, the stone is suitable, if the color is acceptable.

FREESTONE OR SANDSTONE.

Enough has already been said concerning the ex cellent quarries of this rock to be found in almost

every county, excepting as to its adaptation to the making of grindstones.

Many persons have selected fragments which they

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used for sharpening edge tools, but as yet, however, I do not know that quarries have been opened which furnish stone of precisely the right grain for this purpose. But no two quarries are alike in their

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