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This book is the outgrowth of experience in relation to the matters of which it treats, and the reader is requested to bear in mind that it is not written by a professional author. It is hoped that upon this ground its many defects will be more leniently regarded.

The map has been drawn and engraved with great care, and everything upon it is from official sources excepting the proposed railroad. lines. With this exception it is intended to be strictly accurate, and it is probable that most of the projected roads will be constructed in a few years.

I gladly record my gratitude to the numberless friends who have rendered valuable service in furnishing material for this work, and especially to the members of the Legislature of 1871, which almost without dissent appropriated twenty-five hundred dollars to aid in its publication. Without these kind offices on the part of my friends and those who desire to see the State correctly described, it would have been impossible to sell the work for the small sum at which it is offered.

To Mr. J. G. Haskell, the accomplished architect of the State Capitol, State University and many other buildings which bespeak his taste and skill, I am deeply indebted for assistance in the matter of engravings. Through his introduction I have been able to obtain precisely what was wanted from Mr. S. S. Kilburn, 96 Washington Street, Boston, Massa

chusetts, whose promptness and accuracy I can commend and whose work commends itself. Two or three coarser engravings were obtained from other sources, but they give accurate views of the objects presented. The views given are only samples of what is to be seen in Kansas. From several towns it happened to be impossible to procure such views as were wanted; and there are buildings, bridges, water powers, etc., in all parts of the State which would interest the reader equally with those given. The engravings are nearly all from photographs, but in a few instances, the buildings are not yet completed, and the views given are from the architect's plans. It is believed that this feature of the book will commend itself to all who desire to know Kansas as it is.

This book points out various means whereby more extended information can be obtained in regard to any particular locality, and the author will also answer all letters addressed to him at Topeka, with stamps inclosed. I shall give especial attention to all changes in the laws, or in the rulings of the General Land Office, in relation to public lands, and will furnish the same at a trifling expense to my correspondents.

C. C. H.

Bausas.

BOUNDARIES AND AREA.

HE parallel of 40 degrees north latitude, which passes eastward a little north of Springfield, Illinois, and Indianapolis, Indiana; and through Columbus, Ohio, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, forms the northern line of the State of Kansas.

The southern boundary line of Kansas is the parallel of 37 degrees, which is the latitude of Southern Kentucky and Virginia, passing through Norfolk in the latter State. Westward from Kansas this line strikes the Pacific coast fifty miles south of San Francisco.

Nebraska lies on the north of Kansas; Missouri on the east; the Indian territory on the south; and Colorado on the west.

Kansas is about 210 miles wide and 430 miles long. Its area is about 90,000 square miles, or 57,600,000

acres.

RIVERS.

A considerable portion of the boundary line between Missouri and Kansas is formed by the Missouri river, upon the windings of which navigable stream, the State presents a water front to the east of about one hundred and fifty miles. This river is navigable for steamboats for twenty-five hundred miles above the northern State line, north and westward to Fort Benton, near the Rocky Mountains and British Possessions; and southeastward five hundred miles to the point of intersection with the Missis

sippi, twenty-five miles above St. Louis. The length of the bridge which spans the Missouri at Leavenworth City, is one thousand feet, but the river is, in places, half a mile wide.

The other principal rivers of the State are as follows: The Kansas or Kaw River, is formed by the confluence of the Republican and Smoky Hill Rivers, near Junction City, and is about one hundred and fifty miles in length.

The Smoky Hill River rises near the Rocky Mountains, in Colorado. It receives the Saline River, which is about two hundred miles long, and the Solomon, about two hundred and fifty miles in length.

The Republican River rises in Colorado, flows through Northwestern Kansas into Nebraska, whence it returns to Kansas, about one hundred and fifty miles west of the eastern line of the State. Its length from its source is more than four hundred miles.

The Kansas River receives on the north, at Manhattan, the Big Blue River, which rises in Nebraska and is about one hundred and twenty-five miles long; and the Grasshopper, about seventy-five miles in length. On the south it receives, near Lawrence, the Wakarusa, which is nearly fifty miles in length. The Kansas River flows nearly due east from Junction City, and enters the Missouri River at a point where the latter, making a great bend to the eastward, leaves the State line. About two-thirds of the State lies south of the Kansas and Smoky Hill Rivers, whence that portion is frequently called Southern Kansas, and the remainder of the State Northern Kansas. The Kansas River is not practically navigable, although steamboats have ascended it, in one instance to Fort Riley, which is on the Smoky Hill, above the mouth of the Republican.

The Marais des Cygnes River, or River of Swans, which Whittier has immortalized in song, rises east

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