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counted forty-four distinct strata of limestone, varying from one foot to thirty feet in thickness, and making, in the aggregate, about three hundred and sixty feet of limestone. He also counted twentyfour strata of sandstone, measuring in the aggregate, two hundred feet. The sandstone is chiefly found in the lower coal measures, and in heavy beds, from five to fifty feet thick. The coal beds counted by Professor Swallow, number twenty-two, many of which are too thin to be of any value, but he says "ten of them range in thickness from one to seven feet." I think, however, that no coal beds have been worked in Kansas, which exceed four feet in thickness



The next higher system, which exhibits itself west of the foregoing, is called by Prof. Swallow Upper and Lower Permian. He gives their respective thickness as one hundred and forty-one and five hundred and sixty-three feet, making a total depth of seven hundred and four feet. In this system he counted thirty-five different strata of limestone, making a total thickness of about two hundred feet of this rock. The limestones of this system are chiefly known as magnesian limestone. This system also contains beds of gypsum. The boundaries of the Permian system are not defined by the geolo

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ologists, but upon the Kansas River it commences in the neighborhood of Manhattan and extends across the State, from north to south, in an irregular belt perhaps fifty miles wide from east to west.

Next higher, and to the westward, Prof. Swallow places the Triassic system. The total thickness of the strata in this formation is given as three hundred and thirty-eight feet, and it is composed of limestone, sandstone, thin coal veins, gypsum, selenite, and magnesian marls and shales.

To the westward of the foregoing is the cretaceous formation, extending to the foot hills of the Rocky Mountains, which has been more extensively examined by Prof. B. F. Mudge, of the State Agricultural College, Manhattan, than by any other geologist. By the kindness of Prof. Mudge I am permitted to present the following memoranda, transmitted to me by by him, January 7, 1871. It is a valuable contribution to science, because it contains the most recent geological items published in relation to Western Kansas.

"The first geological formation west of the Carboniferous, is the Permean, which crosses the State through Davis and Riley counties, in a northeasterly and southwesterly direction. The fossils correspond in a great degree, with those of the Permean of Europe, but the Carboniferous fossils unite with the Permean in many of the contiguous strata, so that no distinct line of demarcation between the two can be seen. West of this is a red sandstone tract, which corresponds to the Triassic, (or new red sandstone of old authors), but the fossils are so few that the boundaries, like the preceding, cannot be clearly defined. The Cretaceous formation is still farther west, crossing the State in a northeasterly and southwesterly direction, near the mouths of the Saline and Solomon Rivers, and thence covering the whole westerly portion of the State. This is one of the

richest deposits of the United States, in its fossils, and possesses great geological interest. It not only abounds in well preserved fossils, similar to those of other parts of the United States, as well as of Europe, but contains many species new to science

"In illustration of this, the fact may be stated that the writer, at one locality, twenty miles west of Salina, obtained fifteen species of marine shells, new to science, and in a brief excursion near Fort Wallace, and on the Solomon, he procured three new species of reptiles and five of fishes, many of large


"The predominant fossils of the eastern portion of this formation, are dicolyledonous leaves, of which about fifty species have been found, a dozen of which are new to science. Among these is the cinnamon, now growing only in torrid climes. More westerly are quantities of the remains of sharks and other fish, equaling in size the largest now known, also saurians and other amphibians of large size and peculiar forms.

"The soil of all these formations is rich. Even the sandstone region has so much of lime and organic substance in the loam, that the farms are equal to the best in the State. The Saline, Solomon and Republican valleys are well timbered (for a prairie country), the soil rich, deep and well drained.

"Fifteen miles west of Fort Harker, at Wilson Creek, is a deposit of lignite coal forty-two inches in thickness, underlying an extensive portion of the country. It is also found in a corresponding_situation in the valleys of the Solomon, Saline and Republican Rivers, but though affording a present supply of fuel, it is inferior to the bituminous coal found on the line of the railroads in the southeastern part of the State. The lignite from Wilson Creek was at one time on many of the locomotives of the Kansas Pacific Railway.

"The most valuable mineral in this part of the State is salt, which is found in numerous springs and extensive salt marshes in sufficient quantities to sapply half the population of the United States.

"Stone for building material is abundant in all the geological formations. In the Cretaceous, the lime beds are frequently from twenty to sixty feet in thickness, soft, easily wrought and making excellent quick lime. The buildings at Fort Wallace and some at Fort Hayes are made from it. Those at Fort Harker are constructed of a brown sandstone. Some of the limestone strata run into a white chalk, which is fully equal to that imported from England. Gypsum is more or less abundant, sometimes in strata from ten to fifteen feet in thickness, and in future will be found by our farmers to be one of the most valuable natural deposits of our State."

Professor Mudge gives above sufficient evidences of what all geologists assert to be true: that this entire region was submerged in water during the past ages. At this period a portion of the rocky formations, enumerated above, were ground to powder, and intermixed in such a manner as to give to our soil its various and valuable chemical properties, which have been so fully described in preceding pages.


Frequent allusion has already been made to the important part which rock deposits play in the frame work of Kansas scenery, and in the economy of Kansas life. The importance of the subject in its pecuniary aspects merits still further mention.

The rock of Kansas chiefly consists, as is shown in the foregoing, of limestone, sandstone and gypsum. At least 90 per cent. is limestone of various texture and color. There is no better limestone in

the United States than is to be found in Kansas. Columns dressed to eight inch face, fourteen inches deep, and fourteen feet high, are used in two story brick fronts at Topeka.

Professor J. A. Bent, of Wheaton College, Illinois, expresses the following opinion which is founded upon extensive travel and observation: "No state in

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the Union is so generally and so well supplied with rock as Kansas, and at the same time so free from rock which comes in the way of cultivating the soil."

The reason why these two advantages are here combined in so extraordinary a degree, is found in the fact that the strata of rock are nearly all horizontal, while the entire State slopes very considerable to the east. The strata are thereby caused to appear one above another, like broken and irregular

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