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wood, or whip stock even, was hauled ten miles. Many splendid farms have been opened in that State, by hauling timber twenty miles.

Kansas really needs less timber than any other western State. Nowhere else is there as much good stone available for building purposes, while coal is abundant and good. Yet I think that in no other prairie State, is there a fair supply of timber so evenly distributed. The mild climate of this State and the comparative dryness of the winter months, really makes the demand for timber less imperative than in localities subject to excessive cold weather, or where cattle need continued shelter from cold rains. In the latter respect the timber in this State is distributed in exact proportion to the wants of the country, for on the western and comparatively treeless prairies there is very little precipitation of moisture during cold weather.

In the older settled portions of the State, considerable of the best timber has been cut, but railroads are already constructed in every county in this region, bringing pine at moderate prices (which are given elsewhere) from the upper Mississippi and Michigan pineries. Two or three lines of Kansas railroads are also soon to penetrate the pineries south of this State. By these roads pine will be furnished at low rates. It now sells at the mills in the pineries of the Indian Territory, Arkansas and Texas, at ten dollars to fifteen dollars per thousand feet. The hard pine of southern pineries is unsurpassed for fencing, framing stuff and flooring, and much of it makes excellent siding, shingles, etc.

When large timber is cut, the remaining young trees grow with accelerated rapidity, and as soon as prairie fires are checked timber springs up on the open prairies, and in our rich soil soon becomes available for domestic uses. Besides, as is shown elsewhere, it is a very easy matter to grow a thrifty

young forest. In these ways the growth of native timber in the older settled prairie regions of Illinois and Missouri have exceeded the consumption, so that there is actually more timber in many localities than there was fifty years ago.

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Some writers have erroneously treated of "prairie grass as a distinct variety of grass, whereas all grasses growing upon the prairie are classed under this general name. There are many distinct varieties of these wild grasses, which it would be tedious and profitless to mention by name.

Excepting those varieties which pass under the general name of buffalo grass, the prairie grasses of Kansas are similar to those of other prairie states. They cover the entire surface of the earth, and stand from one foot to six feet in hight. Tall coarse grasses grow on the bottom lands, and the hay made from them sells in towns for a dollar or two per ton less than "upland hay," which is made from the shorter and finer varieties grown on higher lands. A constant change takes place in the varieties of prairie grass-certain kinds disappearing upon the settlement of the country, while other varieties take their place. The wide-leaved blue-stem or blue joint-a very valuable variety-occupies most of Eastern Kansas, and is rapidly extending Westward. The nutritious pea vine and wild rye grow abundantly among the grasses in many places, and make a hay which is equal, if not superior, to the best of tame hay.

Upland prairie grass, when properly cut, cured and stacked, makes a hay but little inferior to timothy. There are good farmers who feed both kinds and have little preference for either, but their prairie hay as well as tame grass hay is carefully prepared and stacked.

Wild grass like tame grass ought always to be cut for hay as soon as it is "in bloom," that is, when the pollen can be rattled from the head like a fine dust. By allowing grass to stand any considerable length of time after this period, the sugar, starch and other elements which give it value for food, are converted into woody fibre, as any one can see who notices how hard and stiff the grass gradually becomes. Many persons neglect hay cutting until the grass is not only hard and unpalatable to stock, but permit frost to come and find them haying. It is not surprising that such farmers think prairie hay of little value. Hay should be cured and stacked as soon as possible after cutting. By sprinkling a little salt upon it, the stock will eat it more freely, and as many think with better thrift; and if the hay is a little damp when stacked, salt will keep it from spoiling.

Hay is generally stacked in ricks about ten feet wide, twelve or fifteen feet high, and as long as convenient. Stacks or ricks of hay (or grain) ought to be kept the highest in the middle from the commencement of the rick; carry the sides straight up for two-thirds the hight of the stack; when complete, twist large hay ropes and pass them across the top of the rick, fastening a heavy weight to the ends, or tie two rails or poles together, and throw across the top. Hay is put up in this manner with mowing machines and horse rakes, for two dollars to three dollars per ton, and by selecting a good locality, and stacking on the ground where cut, it can be put up for one dollar and a half per ton. Our prairies yield from one to three tons per acre, varying with the soil and the season.

From early spring to midsummer, the prairies are gaily decked with flowers of various form and hue, presenting through this season a fascinating pano



Gen. W. W. Wright, Chief Engineer. L. B. Boomer & Co., Builders.


rama of ever changing color, and affording boquets which rival the delicate tints of costly exotics.


"How many days in the year," asks one, "is the mud deep and sticky in Kansas?". I answer that on the average, during three hundred days of the year, you can put your span of horses to your buggy and drive at a smart trot over our common natural prairie roads. At times the mud is deep and sticky, but this is a feature inseparable from a good soil, and owing to the excellent natural drainage of Kansas, the mud dries very soon after the frost goes out of the ground, or after a rain.

Excepting other portions of this peculiar transMissouri region, there is no other good agricultural country so favored in this regard. The mud is not as troublesome here as in Ohio, Indiana and Illinois.

No people from any locality, which is a good farming region, need fear the mud of Kansas, and those who wish to live in towns will find sidewalks ready made, or if not made, the price of lots will be so low that they can afford to endure the discomfort of thick boots occasionally, to be benefited by the inevitable rise in such property as they purchase.


The entire State of Kansas has the best natural roadways of any State in the Union, excepting Nebraska, which in this regard is like Kansas. (Indeed,, if Nebraska had our timber and stone and coal and climate and soil, she would be as good a State as Kansas is.) With either a carriage or a loaded team, you can drive over the entire State regardless of roads, by selecting good natural crossings at the

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