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feet, which is less than the average altitude of Western Kansas above the same level. The former is famous as a resort for invalids-the latter will be more famous whenever its advantages are fully known. The entire State is so favorably situated in these regards that little attention has been paid to the relative claims for healthfulness of its various portions. "Burleigh," the well known correspondent of the Boston Journal, (Matthew Hale Smith), write thus under date of November, 1870:

"Before I speak of Topeka, the Capital of Kansas, I will mention a few peculiarities of the State. The name given to the atmosphere is that of 'champagne,' from its exhilarating properties. It is very elastic and invigorating. Its effect on diseased, debilitated and worn out systems, is very remarkable."

It may be mentioned as illustrative of the peculiar properties of the atmosphere of Kansas, that horses are never known to contract the "heaves" in this State, that disease which is so common and fatal to horses in States east of us.

Kansas also occupies a favorable mean in relation to two distinct types of diseases which are foundthe one in very low miasmatic regions and the other in elevated and mountainous localities. Concerning the former complaints, they have not extensively prevailed in Kansas, excepting in unfavorable situations during the early settlement of the country, and it is confidently asserted that in no country east of us did the early settlers experience less sickness. It is a fact also worthy of mention that all localities most subject to fever and ague have been settled for some years, and this disease is consequently disappearing with the improvement of the country, while the newer and more elevated portions of the State are not subject to its attacks.

Concerning the class of rheumatic and acute febrile diseases which prevail in all mountainous

regions, Kansas is almost entirely exempt from them; Vendors of "liniments and "Poor Man's Plasters,' are not advised to come to Kansas.

.WATER.

The water of springs and wells in this State is pure and good. There are small isolated tracts, embracing two or three farms each, where good, clear water is not easily obtained by digging; but the

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LUDINGTON HOUSE, OTTAWA.

settlers here, like the settlers upon large tracts of country in Missouri, Iowa and Illinois, where the well water is uniformly turbid and unpalatable to the taste, must drink rain water caught in cisterns. This is healthful, and by use becomes agreeable. It is probable that on some of the high divides between streams in the western portion of the State, it may not be easy to find water by digging. In fact, the Kansas Pacific Railroad failed to obtain water by

digging at two or three of their stations near the western State line; but of the many emigrants, buffalo hunters and others who have traversed all the western portion of the State, none say that they have much difficulty in finding water, either flowing from springs or by digging a few feet in favorable localities. It is a peculiarity of some streams in the extreme western portion of the State, that they suddenly sink into quick sands, and appear again a few miles below.

One of the first things for a settler to do here, as in any country, is to provide good pure water. Dig a well at once, unless you are near a spring, and do not drink surface or creek water. This custom of western settlers, I believe to be the cause of more sickness than any other, or prehaps all other bad habits or unnecessary exposures of western life. Of all the eastern half of the State, a tract of country two hundred miles square, and-if we except the inhabitable portions of Maine-as large as all New England, it can be truthfully stated that it is abundantly watered with springs and streams for stock purposes, and that clear, healthful drinking water is universally obtained from springs, or by digging from twenty to sixty feet. It is a peculiarity of the country, that water is often found upon the high prairies at a less depth than on the low lands. The water here is not, as in other western States, uniformly hard. Settlers can locate where they may have soft or freestone water if they prefer, as in a small portion of the State the sandstone formation predominates, which furnishes soft water.

All the streams in the settled portion of the State are larger than when the country was new, and many brooks and creeks flow continuously, which were formerly dry several months in each year. Not only is this well known to all early settlers, but there are thousands of springs on the prairies where

there was formerly no indication of one. This phenomenon is owing to causes to which we have more fully alluded under the head of Climatic Changes.

The editor of the Chicago Railway Review, spent several weeks of 1870, in a thorough examination of Kansas, as he had previously examined the other Western States. In his paper of October 27, 1870, he

says:

"The readers of our previous articles must be convinced that eastern Kansas is anything but a region destitute of streams. No country in the world is better watered."

In the early settlement of the country all the principal roads were laid out on the divides, winding about between the sources of the streams, because bridges could not at once be erected, and roads cut through the timber growing on their banks. From this fact many early travelers in Kansas, following the principal roads, concluded that there were few streams in the country. The railroads, however, take a direct course across the country, and bridg ing is an expensive part of the work. A report of the bridge contractors of the Leavenworth, Lawrence & Galveston Railroad, was published in the Ottawa Journal of December 16, 1870, and this report shows that in a distance of one hundred eight and one-half miles south from Lawrence to Thayer, there were constructed sixty-seven bridges and trestles, (besides culverts,)-being nearly one to every mile and a half of the road. More than three million feet of timber was used in the construction of these bridges and trestles. A glance at the map I will show that this railroad does not follow the windings of one or two streams. The line is directly across the country over divides from the Kansas River to the Marais des Cygnes, thence to the Pottawatomie and thence to the Neosho. A few trestles

are reported as over unimportant ravines, in which probably there is not a constant stream of water flowing, but the general evidence of this report is, that Kansas railroads are pretty well bridged for a country "destitute of stock water," as she has been reported to be.

TIMBER.

In the eastern half of Kansas there is a sufficiency of timber for practical purposes. It is found along the streams and in adjacent ravines, sheltered from the ravages of prairie fires by high rock-capped bluffs. The following is a list of the trees and shrubs of this State, prepared by Dr. C. A. Logan for a State document on the sanitary relations of Kansas:

White Oak, Red Oak, Burr Oak, Black Oak, Black Jack Oak, Water Oak, White or American Elm, Red or Slippery Elm, Black Walnut, White Walnut or Butternut, Cottonwood, Box Elder, Hackberry, Honey Locust, Willow, Shell Bark Hickory, Pig Nut Hickory, Pecan Nut Hickory, Sycamore, White Ash, Sugar Maple, Red Mulberry, Linden or Basswood, Crab Apple, Wild Cherry, Coffee Tree.

Of shrubs and vines he gives Elder, Sumac, Green Brier, Gooseberry, Hazel, Pawpaw, Prickly Ash, Raspberry, Blackberry, Prairie Rose, and Grapes of several varieties.

The streams, with their attendant timber belts, varying in width from two or three rods to as many miles, so cut the prairies in every direction that few farms of Eastern Kansas are more than one or two miles from timber, and cordwood sells from four to six dollars per cord in our towns. This wonderful advantage over most prairie States is appreciated by the writer at least, for my first experience in western farming was in Illinois, forty miles from Chicago, when every rail and fence post and stick of fire

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