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FROM A CHARCOAL SKETCH BY PROF. WORRALL, TOPEKA, PHOTOGRAPHED BY J. LEE KNIGHT.

Concerning this table, Professor Snow writes as follows:

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Twenty States were included in the comparison, those States engaged in the rebellion being omitted because the returns from them during the years 1865, '66, '67, were too meager to afford trustworthy results. From the comparison it appears that the total annual rainfall for Kansas, during the five years, was greater than that of the following States; New Hampshire, Vermont, Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri and Nebraska. (10 States out of the 19). I have also calculated the amount of rain in each of the twenty States for each of the four seasons. The result shows that while Kansas has less rain in the winter months than any other State on the list, except Nebraska, she has more rain in the remaining nine months than any of the other States, except Connecticut, Maryland, New Jersey and Kentucky. It also appears that for the seven months from the first of March to the first of October, when rain is needed for the germination and growth of crops, Kansas stands at the head of the list, having more rain than any of the nineteen States with which the comparison is made."

Mr. Watts Beckwith, of Olathe, Kansas, who reports meteorological observations for publication by the Agricultural Department at Washington, has kindly furnished me with the following table, which also illustrates the last statement of Professor Snow, given above, and shows the heavy rainfall that takes place in Kansas during the growing months of the year:

TABLE showing the rainfall in Kansas during each month for six years, from 1865 to 1870 inclusive, from recorded observations by Mr. Watts Beckwith:

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"I think of late years we also have less thunder and lightning, but this I have not recorded as carefully as the amount of rainfall.”

It should be noted that all the records from which the foregoing figures of rainfall in Kansas, have been collated, were made in the eastern half of Kansas. Unquestionably less rain falls in Western Kansas, than the tables indicate, but the increase in that portion of the State is very noticeable.

HEALTH.

To write upon this subject so as to be understood, we must compare this with other States. Although the climate of Eastern Kansas is somewhat less bracing and vigorous than that of States farther north, it is much more so than the same latitude anywhere east of us and west of the Alleghanies, and it is conceded that Kansas will eventually be reckoned as the most healthful of all western States. In northern latitudes it is to be observed that peo

ple usually build close houses, so constructed that no fresh air can enter. Shutting themselves up in small rooms, heated by that modern barbarism, an iron etove, or hot air furnace, they hibernate during the long winter months. This seems to be a necessity of all that damp, inhospitable winter climate, which is found north of our latitude and east of the Mississippi River, but the hydra-headed diseases which seize so many victims in those regions are largely induced by this housing process. In Kansas people live more out of doors. Dwellings may safely be constructed with less care to keep out fresh air, and during many winter days, doors and windows are left wide open. There is no place in the world which is best adapted to all persons, but regions like Kansas, which occupy an admirable mean between the extremes of latitude, are best suited to the constitution of a majority of mankind.

It is not true, as many suppose, that Kansas climate is uniform in temperature. This cannot be truthfully asserted of any portion of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains, but the remarkable dryness of our climate so mollifies the influence of the sudden changes to which, in common with other States, we are subject, that their effect is much less injurious here than elsewhere. The rains of Kansas chiefly fall during the summer months, causing the fertile soil to yield a vegetation almost tropical in its luxuriance, but during the cooler seasons we have little rain, and the air is dry and bracing. Damp air causes damp clothing, and moisture is a good conductor of heat. In the humid atmosphere of more eastern States, clothing is at times ineffectual towards keeping the body warm, and at these times sudden changes are fatal to many, and dangerous to all. But in the dry, elastic Kansas atmosphere, woolen clothing completely protects the person, and thus protected, sudden changes are sustained

with little danger to health. An atmosphere so pure and dry that it will preserve fresh meats in hot weather, without salting, must be a healthy and invigorating atmosphere. This is the case in the extreme western portion of the State. "Jerked meat"-layers of lean meat, jerked off by tearing the fibres, and then cured in the sun-keeps through the season, and after August, quarters of beef, buffalo, venison, etc., suspended a few feet above the ground, keep perfectly sweet. In this atmosphere, Kansas offers great advantages to all consumptives, or persons with asthmatic or bronchial difficulties. In this, too, there is great room for choice in location.

In the three degrees of latitude which Kansas occupies, we will find a very considerable difference in temperature between the northern and southern extremes of the State, but to a greater extent will the careful observer note a difference between the eastern and western limits of Kansas. This difference arises from two causes. It is a well known fact that the Rocky Mountain range induces a heavy precipitation of moisture upon their western slopes, leaving their eastern slopes, and a belt of considerable width stretching eastward therefrom, and known as "the plains," that has but little rain. The western limits of Kansas trench upon this region, and the dry air which passes over these plains is vastly beneficial to invalids, whether suffering from pulmonary complaints, or from general debility, indigestion or nervous exhaustion. The second cause to which I refer is the altitude to which one may attain in Kansas. As already shown the State rises gradually from its eastern to its western boundary, attaining an altitude of 3500 feet above the level of the sea. The height of the Cumberland Mountain plateau, in Tennessee, is only 1000 feet above the miasmatic bottoms of the Tennessee River, which flows at its base, and its average altitude above the ocean about 1800

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