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which money may be put are so various and so profitable, that people who build houses receive large returns for their investments. For instance, a neat house with a cellar, three or four rooms on the first floor and two chambers above, with a garden of a quarter or a half acre, will rent for from $20 to $30 per month. Cottages with two or three rooms rent for $12 to $15 per month. Rents are payable monthly in advance. Few people rent for any considerable period. They soon "run up a smoke of their own," if it is but a humbie domicil. He who lives in his own house, and buys when articles are plentiful and cheap, can live cheaper here than he can in the East, as the tables given below will testify:

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The foregoing table was prepared for this book in January, 1871, by my friends Messrs. Ridenour & Baker, long established and favorably known grocery

merchants of Lawrence. They also have large branch houses at Topeka, Emporia and Tioga, all under the firm name either of Ridenour or of Baker, and these figures may therefore be relied upon as representing the average retail prices in this state at the time they were made.

HORSES.

The breeding of fine horses has come to be so important an interest in Kansas, that I desired to treat the subject in a considerate manner, and therefore applied to various "horse men" for such data as was needful, but have received very little assistance in this direction.

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Through Mr. B. F. Akers, of Leavenworth, I learn that there are more than sixty thoroughbred horses and mares in this state, and among the former he quoted from memory the names of "Newry," Chicamauga,' "Veto," "Express," "Leinster," "General Mitchell," "Derby," "Orlando," "Prairie Boy," "Blondin," "Escape," etc.

Among the dealers and breeders who have contributed most largely to the horse stock of the state by valuable importations of thoroughbred and trotting horses and mares, are Mr. B. F. Akers, Col. C. R. Jennison, H. D. Bunch, Steiner & Tough, and F. C. Buckley, all of Leavenworth; Dr. W. L. Challis, of Atchison; Mr. G. W. Greaver, of Wyandotte; A. M. Eastman, of Topeka, who bred "Henry," a famous trotting horse which has been taken East, and lately tretted a mile in 2:2212, on Flatwood Course, N. Y.; Mr. Conn, of Council Grove; J. Reynolds, of Howard county; a gentleman who has recently brought several fine horses from Kentucky to Wyandotte county; and many others, also have horses of great value. The moneyed value to the state, of these efforts to establish the reputation of Kansas for thoroughbred and trotting horses, is probably not fully appreciated by the most of us, and the writer confesses to a very moderate degree of enthusiasm upon the subject. Whether a horse trots a mile in 2:291⁄2 or 2:30, seems a matter not of very great importance to the world, and if he will carry me safely sixty miles a day, I am not particular as to his pedigree. But this is not the way horse fanciers regard these questions, and speed and blood command fabulous sums in the market. Farmers and breeders raise horses for the money there is in them, and there is certainly a great deal of money in the business of raising fine horses. In this regard the reputation of a state is of great importance. A Vermont horse will command a better price, with most buyers, than one of equal value from Maine, because of the reputation gained by the former state in this direction, and if any Western man wants a thoroughbred, he goes to Kentucky for it. The breeders in our state are confident that Kansas will soon have an enduring reputation for its fine horse stock. There are many young horses in this state which will soon be upon the market. Mr. Akers, above alluded to, introduced

to the Eastern public three noted trotters, bred in this state, which be named "Kansas Chief," "Kansas Queen," and "Kansas Pet," and after a series of successes with them upon various courses, he disposed of them for the handsome sum of fifteen thousand dollars. The same gentleman also brought to the state the trotting stallion "Comas," of which a cut is given herewith.

In this connection it gives me pleasure to state that the well known Ama-a Sprague of Providence, Rhode Island, will soon open a large farm in this State to be devoted principally to the breeding of fine horses and cattle. He is already the owner of some of the best stock in New Fngland, which will be immediately removed to this state to a farm purchased near Leavenworth for this purpose. Mr. Akers is associated with Mr. Sprague in this enterprise, and it is their purpose to fit up a farm of about 40,000 acres in the interior of the state, seed it to blue grass, divide it into suitable fields by osage hedges, erect substantial and commodious buildings, and put up on the place the best stock that can be procured. The enormous wealth, enterprising spirit and business sagacity of Mr. Sprague, combined with the thorough practical knowledge possessed by Mr. Akers, who has acquired a competency in this business in Kansas, renders the brilliant success of this scheme a foregone conclusion. In five year's time these gentlemen will have the best stock farm in the world.

"COMAS."

This well known trotting stallion was brought to Kansas by B. F. Akers being selected after a visit to the best breeding studs in the country. He was foaled in 1863, and was bred in Iowa. Like "Kirkwood" and "Bashaw, jr.," he was got by Green's Bashaw, dam Topsey, by Prophet, by Hill's Vermont Black Hawk, by Sherman Morgan, by Justin Morgan, by True Britton.

Green's Bashaw, by Drake's (Vernol's) Black Hawk, let dam by Webber's Tom Thumb; 2d dam, "The Chas. Kent Mare," (dam of Risdyk's Hambletonian, sire of Dexter,) by imported Bellfounder; 3d dam, "Old One Eye," by Hambletonian, (son of imported Messenger; 4th dam, by imported Messenger. Drake's (Vernol's) Black Hawk, by New York Black Hawk; dam by Kentucky Whip, son of Cook's, or Blackburn's, Whip.

New York Black Hawk, by Andrew Jackson, dam the celebrated Sally Miller, by Mambrino, by imp. Messenger

Andrew Jackson, by Young Bashaw, dam by Whynot, son of imp.. Messenger.

Young Bashaw, by imp. Barb Grand Bashaw, dam by imp. Messenger.

Mr. Otto Holstein, correspondent of the Field, Turf and Farm, in describing this horse, says, after giving his pedigree: "Here is blood enough on his sire's side to insure trotting qualities in his progeny. But this is not all. While the paternal house furnished to the trotting world 'Dexter,' ' Lady Thorn,' 'Goldsmith Maid,' 'American Girl,' 'George M. Patchen,' &c., the maternal side has scarcely been a whit behind, for, from it, sprang the celebrated 'Lancet' and the wonderful Ethan Allen,' the sire of 'Honest Allen,

Pocahontas, &c. Comas is, therefore, one of the best bred trotting stallions in America, being a combination of the two most successful trotting families in the United State, the Bashaw and the Messenger, with the additional excellence of the Black Hawk.

"His general excellence of color is that he is a rich chestnut, and of form is that he is a pony-built horse, fifteen hands and two inches high, revealing the great speed, elastic step and wonderful endurance for which the family is so noted. His carriage is lofty, consequently his head and neck are well set upon his shoulders. His back is apparently short, owing, measurably, to the strong arches of muscle over the loin, so necessary for enduring strength in the trotter. His legs are clean and flat, his withere and shoulders inclined, chest deep, and capacious enough for excellent respiratory action, main and tail fine

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"COMAS."

(The property of B. F. Akers, Leavenworth.)

and long, his eyes are good, as also are his joints and feet, the great and necessary adjuncts to a successful stock horse. Comas, comparatively speaking, has been brea with more than an ordinary degree of care, and a foundation has been formed for future excel ence, which is now fully substantiated by the appearance and wonderful trotting action displayed by his produce."

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[The property of B. F. Akers, Leavenworth.]

I am indebted to Mr. Otto Holstein for the following description of this horse. "The stable companion of Comas is his son, 'Kansas Boy.' This fast and fashionable bred three year old stallion is a blood bay, fifteen hands and three inches high, was sired by Comas, dam by Gauglion Gangle, son of Bertrand, son of Sir Archy, son of imported Diomed. Large as he is there is no waste timber in his make up, but is well and compactly built, not leggy, possessed of a gamey head, rangy neck, splendid shoulders, deep, roomy girth, well ribbed on the barrel, with grand quarters like his sire, a set of legs as hard and clean as polished ivory. An analysis of his breeding is conclusive as to his future worth. Through his dam he traces back to the stoutest and most fashionable blood known to the American racing turf, as well as throwing his descent down the line of the winning trotting blood to 'Andrew Jackson,' who, in the characteristic words of the late Hiram Woodruff, was 'Rough to look at, but king of trotters.' Kansas Boy, will in all probability not be offered to public patronage until his trotting abilities are thoroughly developed. He has been in training but a short time, and with Comas can trot close to '40 to pole."

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